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one of several hunting gatherings
lives in small groups between 10-100 (all are related)


groups families are organized members believe they are descendants of a common ancestors.

stateless societies

did not have centralized system of power


society that trace ancestors through their fathers
inheritance passes from father to son


society that children trace their ancestors through their mothers
inherit from mothers family


the part of North Africa that is today the Miditerranean


strict religious brotherhood that was founded by Ibn Yasin


another group of Berber Muslim reformers also seized power from the Almoravids


a kingdom, and its rulers were growing rich by taxing the goods that trades carried through their territory


1235 the kingdom emerged, its founders were Mande-speaking people


Mali's first great leader, came to power by crushing a cruel, unpopular leader.

Ibn Battuta

one of Mansa Musa's successors prepared to recieve a traveler and historian.
A native of Tangier in North Africa
traveled for 27 years
visiting the most countries in the Islamic World

Songhai people

to the east
They built up an army and extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger River near Garo


a group of people named after the language they spoke


the people all speak common language


Arabic and Bantu blended language

Great Zimbabwe

In Southeastern Africa the Sona people established a city

Mutapa Empire

the origin of the term mwene mutapa

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