163 terms

Nutrition

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1 glass
8 ounces; 240 mL
1 cup
8 ounces; 240 mL
1 teacup
6 ounces; 180 mL
1 styrofoam cup
6 ounces; 180 mL
1 popsicle
3 ounces; 90 mL
vegetables high in vitamin K
cabbage, broccoli, spinach, escarole, greens, lettuce, brussel sprouts, endive, kale, cauliflower.
vegetables low in vitamin K
green beans, peas, carrots, potatoes, celery, corn, cucumber, eggplant, tomato, pepper, zucchini, iceberg lettuce.
warfarin diet
be consistent with vitamin K.
chemotherapy diet
high calorie and high protein
BRAT diet
Bananas, Rice, Apple Juice, Toast.
diarrhea
Low Residue Diet
Limited fat, zero milk, Real fresh fish/ground meat, eggs boiled, strained foods.
diverticulitis diet
high residue, no seeds, nuts, or peas.
hypoparathyroidism diet
high calcium, low phosphorus
foods high in folate
green leafy vegetables, legumes, tomatoes, various fruits (oranges)
dumping syndrome diet
high protein, high fat, dry food
acute renal failure diet (diuretic)
high protein, high calorie, restricted fluid
chronic renal failure diet
low sodium, low protein, low potassium
dumping syndrome
increased fat and protein, have small frequent meals, lie down after meals to decrease peristalsis, wait 1 hour after meals to drink.
foods high in iron
beef, brown rice, raisin, green beans, carrots, milk, oatmeal raisin, breads and cereals, dark green vegetables, dried fruits, egg yolk, liver.
bipolar disorder diet
finger foods
acne diet
low fat
acute gastroenteritis diet
clear liquids
celiac disease diet
no gluten
acute glomerulonephritis diet
low sodium, low protein
cretinism diet
high protein, high calcium
ADHD diet
finger foods
addison disease diet
high sodium, low potassium
burn diet
high calorie, high protein
cholecystitis diet
high carbs, high protein, low fat
arthritis diet-gout
restrict purine
iron deficiency anemia diet
high iron
sickle cell anemia diet
high fluids
angina pectoris diet
low cholesterol
congestive heart failure diet
low sodium, low cholesterol
crohn's disease diet
high carbs, high protein, low fat
cushing disease diet
high potassium, low sodium
cystic fibrosis diet
high calorie, high sodium
decubitus ulcer diet
high protein, high vitamin C
diabetes mellitus diet
well balanced diet
hepatic encephalopathy diet
low protein
hepatitis diet
high protein, high calorie
hirschsprung disease diet
high calorie, high protein, low residue
hypertension diet
restrict sodium
hyperthyroidism diet
high protein, high calorie
hyperparathyroidism diet
low calorie
hypothyroidism diet
low sodium, low cholesterol, low saturated fats
kawaski diet
clear liquids
liver cirrhosis diet
low protein
meniere's disease diet
low sodium
myocardial infarction diet
low sodium, low cholesterol, low fat
nephritic syndrome diet
high calorie, high protein, low sodium
osteoporosis diet
high calcium, high vitamin D
pancreatitis diet
low fat
pernicious anemia diet
high protein, high vitamin B
pregnancy induced hypertension diet
high protein
renal colic diet
low sodium, low protein
acute renal failure (oliguric) diet
low sodium, high carbs, low protein
tonsillitis diet
clear liquids
fat soluble vitamins (vitamins KADE)
vitamin K, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E
Kwashikor
nutritional disorder caused by insufficient protein the diet. distinguish from marasmus (FLAME).
fatty liver, anemia, malabsorption, edema.
on fluid restriction and are thirsty....
chew gum or suck on hard candy, freezing fluids so they take longer to consume, adding lemon juice to water to make it more refreshing, and gargling with refrigerated mouthwash.
carbohydrates
4 cal/g
major food sources for carbohydrates
milk, grains, fruits, and vegetables
fat
9 cal/g
inadequate intake of fatty acids...
sensitivity to cold, skin lesions, increased risk of infections, and amenorrhea in women.
excessive intake of fat...
obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers.
proteins
4 cal/g
inadequate protein intake...
protein energy malnutrition, and severe wasting of fat and muscle tissue.
water soluble vitamins
B vitamins and C.
deficiency in minerals...
can develop in chronically ill or hospitalized clients.
what will you always assess?
client's ability to eat and swallow and promote independence in eating as much as is possible.
guidelines for myplate
avoid eating oversized portions, fill half of plate with fruits and vegetables, vary type of vegetables and fruits eaten, select at least half of the grains as whole grains, ensure food from dairy group are high in calcium, drink milk that is fat-free or low fat (1%), eat protein foods that are lean, select fresh foods over frozen or canned foods, drink water rather than liquids that contain sugar.
minerals
calcium, chloride, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, zinc
foods high in calcium
broccoli, carrots, cheese, collard greens, green beans, milk, rhubarb, spinach, tofu, yogurt.
foods high in chloride
salt
foods high in magnesium
avocado, canned white tuna, cauliflower, cooked rolled oats, green leafy vegetables, milk, peanut butter, peas, pork, beef, chicken, potatoes, raisins, yogurt.
foods high in phosphorus
fish, nuts, organ meats, pork, beef, chicken, whole-grain breads and cereal.
foods high in potassium
avocado, bananas, cantaloupe, carrots, fish, mushrooms, oranges, pork, beef, veal, potatoes, raisins, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes
foods high in sodium
american cheese, bacon, butter, canned food, cottage cheese, cured pork, hot dogs, ketchup, lunch meat, milk, mustard, processed foods, snack food, soy sauce, table salt, white and whole-wheat bread, frozen foods, smoked, pickled and boxed lunches. salad dressings, fast foods, soups, potato chips, pretzels.
foods high in zinc
eggs, leafy vegetables, meats, protein-rich foods
foods high in vitamin A
liver, egg yolk, whole milk, green or orange vegetables, fruits
foods high in vitamin D
fortified milk, fish oils, cereals
foods high in vitamin E
vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables, cereals, apricots, apples, and peaches.
foods high in vitamin K
green leafy vegetables, cauliflower, and cabbage
foods high niacin
meats, poultry, fish, beans, peanuts, grains
foods high in vitamin B1 (thiamine)
pork and nuts, whole grain cereals, and legumes.
foods high in vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
milk,lean meats,s fish, grains
foods high in vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
yeast, corn, meat, poultry, fish
foods high in vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
meat, liver
foods high in vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
citrus fruits, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage
foods high in protein
bread and cereal products, dairy products, dried beans, eggs, meats, fish, and poultry
sources of fat
cholesterol, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, saturated fats, trans fats
foods high in cholesterol
animal products, egg yolks, liver and organ meats, shellfish
foods high in monounsaturated fats
duck and goose, eggs, olive and peanut oils
foods high in polyunsaturated fats
corn oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil
foods high in saturated fats
beef, butter, hard yellow, cheeses, luncheon meats
foods high in trans fats
cookies, cakes, candy, chips and crackers, fried foods, frozen pies, pot pies, waffles, pizza, margarine, packaged cake mixes, and other mixes, soups.
sources of CHO
cellulose, fructose, glucose, lactose, starch, sucrose
foods high in cellulose
apples, beans, bran, cabbage
foods high in fructose
fruits, honey
foods high in glucose
carrots, corn, dates, grapes, oranges
foods high in lactose
milk
foods high in starch
barley, beets, carrots, peas, corn, oats, potatoes, pasta, rye, wheat
foods high in sucrose
apricots, granulated table sugar, honeydew and cantaloupe, molasses, peaches, peas, corn, plums
what should you consider when planning the client's nutritional intake?
their cultural and personal choices
clear liquid diet indications
dehydration, initial feeding after complete bowel rest, used initially to feed a malnourished person, person who hasn't had oral intake for some time, for bowel preparation for surgery or tests, postoperatively, clients with fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, gastroenteritis.
clear liquid diets
deficient in energy and nutrients, easily digested and absorbed, minimal residue left in GI tract, may be unappetizing or boring, as a transition diet, used for short-term, clear liquids and foods that are relatively transparent to light and are liquid at body temperature are considered "clear liquids", limiting caffeine upset stomach and sleeplessness will be prevented, may consume salt and sugar.
foods for clear liquid diets
water, bouillon, clear broth, carbonated beverages, gelatin, hard candy, lemonade, ice pops, regular or decaffeinated coffee or tea.
NO DAIRY AND FRUIT JUICES WITH PULP!!!
how would we monitor the client's hydration status?
I&O, weight, monitoring for edema, and monitoring for signs of dehydration.
full liquid diet indications
transition diet after clear liquids following surgery or for clients who have difficulty chewing, swallowing, or tolerating solid foods.
full liquid diet
deficient in energy and nutrients, includes clear and opaque liquid foods, and those that are liquid at body temperature, use of a complete nutritional liquid supplement is often used to meet nutrient needs for clients who are on full liquid diets for more than 3 days.
full liquid diet foods
all clear liquids and items such as plain ice cream, sherbet, breakfast drinks, milk, pudding, custard, soups that are strained, refined cooked cereals, juices, strained vegetables juices.
what would you provide a client who is on a liquid diet?
nutritional supplements such as those high in protein, as prescribed.
mechanical diet indications
requires minimal chewing, used for those who have difficulty chewing but can tolerate more texture than liquid, used for dental problems, surgery of the head or neck, or dysphagia (requires swallow eval and may require thickened liquids if client has swallowing difficulties).
mechanical diet
degree of texture modification depends on individual need, can be pureed, mashed, ground, or chopped, avoid certain foods,
foods to avoid in a mechanical diet
nuts, dried fruits, raw fruits and vegetables, fried foods, tough, smoked, or salted meats, foods with coarse textures.
soft diet indications
used for chewing and swallowing difficulties, ulcerations of the mouth, gums, oral surgery, broken jaw, plastic surgery of the head or neck, or dysphagia, or the client who has had a stroke.
soft diet
mouth sores? serve foods at cooler temps. difficulty chewing or swallowing because of dry mouth can increase salivary flow by sucking on sour candy. encourage to eat a variety of foods. provide plenty of fluids with meals to ease chewing and swallowing of foods. drinking fluids through a straw may be easier than drinking from a cup or straw. all foods and seasonings are permitted; foods that are liquid, chopped, pureed, or regular with soft consistency are tolerated best. foods that can become trapped in the mouth and cause discomfort should be avoided.
foods to avoid with a soft diet
raw fruits and vegetables, fried foods, whole grains, nuts or seeds.
consider clients disease or illness and how it may impact on nutritional status
....
low-residue, low-fiber diet indications
supplies foods that are least likely to form obstruction when the intestinal tract is narrowed or inflammed or scarring or when GI motility is slowed.
used for IBS, partial obstructions, gastroenteritis, diarrhea, or other GI disorders.
foods in low-residue
white bread, refined cooked cereals, cooked potatoes without skins, white rice, and refined pasta.
foods to limit or avoid in a low-residue, low-fiber diet
raw fruits (except bananas), vegetables, nuts and seeds, plant fiber, whole grains, dairy products (limit to 2 servings per day)
high-residue, high-fiber diet
provides 20-35g of dietary fiber daily, volume and weight are added to stool speeding movement of undigested materials through intestines, increase fiber gradually and provide adequate fluids to reduce possible undesirable effects such as abdominal cramps, bloating, diarrhea, and dehydration, limit gas-forming foods.
high-residue, high-fiber diet indications
used for constipation, IBS with primary symptoms is alternating constipation, diarrhea, and asymptomatic diverticular disease.
high residue foods
fruits and vegetables and whole grain products.
gas-forming foods
apples, artichokes, barley, beans, bran, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, celery, cherries, coconuts, eggplant, figs, honey, melons, milk, molasses, nuts, onions, radishes, soybeans, wheat, and yeast.
cardiac diet indications
atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, HTN, MI, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure.
cardiac diet
restrict total amounts amounts of fat, including saturated, trans, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated, cholesterol, and sodium.
sodium free spices and flavorings
allspice, almond extract, bay leaves, caraway seeds, cinnamon, curry powder, garlic powder or garlic, ginger, lemon extract, maple extract, marjoram, mustard powder, nutmeg.
fat-restriced diet
restrict total amount of fat, clients with malaborpstion may also have difficulty tolerating fiber and lactose. vitamin and mineral deficiencies may occur in clients with diarrhea or steatorrhea, a fecal fat test indicates fat malabsorption with excretion of more than 6 to 8g of fat per day during the 3 day specimen collection.
fat-restricted diet indications
used to reduce symptoms of abdominal pain, steatorrhea, flatulence, and diarrhea associated with high intake of dietary fat, and to decrease nutrient losses caused by ingestion of dietary fat in individuals with malabsorption disorders.
high-calorie, high protein diet
encourage nutrient dense, high calorie, high protein foods, encourage snacks between meals
high-calorie, high protein diet indications
used for severe stress, burns, wound healing, cancer, HIV, AIDS, COPD, respiratory failure, or other debilitating diseases.
foods that are nutrient dense, high in calories and protein
whole milk, milk products, peanut butter, nuts, seeds, beef, chicken, fish, pork, eggs, sugar, cream, gravy, oil, butter, mayonnaise, dried fruit, avocado, honey, milkshakes, instant breakfasts, nutritional supplements.
calorie counts assist in determining what?
total nutritional intake and can identify a deficit or excess intake.
carbohydrate-consistent diet indications
diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, obesity
carbohydrate-consistent diet
The Exchange System for Meal Planning developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the American Diabetes Association is a food guide that is recommended. Groups foods according to amounts of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins they contain. major groups contain carbs, meat and meat substitutes, and fats. MyPlate is also recommended.
sodium restricted diet indications
HTN, renal disease, heart failure, cardiac disease, and liver disease.
sodium restricted diet
individualized (can include anywhere from 4g-1g or 500mg of sodium daily). encourage intake of fresh foods, rather than processed. certain meds contain a lot of sodium. salt substitutes may be used to improve palatability; may contain large amounts of potassium and shouldn't be used by renal disease clients.
protein-restricted diet
provide enough PRO to maintain nutritional status but not an amount that will allow the buildup of waste products from PRO metabolism (40-60g daily). what it to be of biological value. an adequate total energy intake from foods is critical. special low protein products add variety to diet. carbs in powdered or liquid forms can provide additional energy. limit foods from the milk, meat, bread, and starch groups.
foods low in protein
pastas, bread, cookies, wafers, gelatin made from wheat starch, vegetables, fruits.
foods allowed for gluten-free diet
meat such as beef, pork, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, some diary products, vegetables, fruits, rice, corn, gluten-free flour, puffed rice, cornflakes, cornmeal, precooked gluten-free cereals
foods prohibited for gluten-free diet
commercially prepared ice-cream, malted milk, prepared puddings, anything made from wheat, rye, oats, barley, breads, rolls, cookies, cakes, crackers, cereal, spaghetti, macaroni noodles, beer and ale.
renal diet indications
acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, those requiring hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis.
renal diet
controlled amounts of PRO, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and fluids may be prescribed; maybe need to modify fiber, cholesterol, and fat based on individual requirements. most clients on dialysis need to restrict fluids.
measures to relieve thirst
chew gum or suck on hard candy, freeze fluids so they take longer to consume, add lemon juice to water to make it more refreshing, gargle with refrigerated mouthwash.
potassium-modified diet indications
low: hyperkalemia (caused by impaired renal function, hypoaldosteronism, addison's disease, ACE Inhibitors, imuunosuppressive meds, potassium sparing diuretics).
high: hypokalemia (caused by renal tubular acidosis, GI losses, intracellular shifting, potassium wasting diuretics, antibiotics, mineralcorticosteroids or glucocorticoid excess resulting from primary or secondary aldosteronism, cushing's syndrome, or exogenous corticosteroid use).
foods low in potassium
applesauce, green beans, cabbage, lettuce, peppers, grapes, blueberries, cooked summer squash, cooked turnip greens, pineapple, and raspberries.
high calcium diet
primary dietary source is dairy products. lactose intolerant clients should incorporate nondairy sources of calcium into their diets regularly.
high calcium diet indications
needed during bone growth, adulthood to prevent osteoporosis, and to facilitate vascular contraction, vasodilation, muscle contraction, and neurotransmission.
low-purine diet
purine is a precursor for uric acid which causes stones and crystals.
foods to restrict in low-purine diet
anchovies, herring, mackerel, sardines, scallops, organ meats, gravies, meat extracts, wild game, goose, and sweet breads.
low-purine diet indications
gout, kidney stones, and elevated uric acid levels.
high-iron indications
anemia clients
pescatarian
abstains from eating all meat and animal flesh with the exception of fish
flexitarian/semivegetarian
consumes mostly a vegetarian diet, but occasionally eats meat.
vegetarian (lacto-ovo vegetarian)
doesn't consume beef, pork, poultry, fish, shellfish, or animal flesh of any kind, doesn't eat eggs and dairy products .
lacto-vegetarian
doesn't eat eggs but does eat dairy products
ovo-vegetarian
doesn't eat meat or dairy products but does eat eggs
vegan
doesn't consume meat of any kind and also doesn't eat eggs, dairy products, processed foods containing these or other animal-derived ingredients such as gelatin
raw vegan/raw food diet
consumes unprocessed vegan foods that have been heated above 115 degrees F.
macrobiotic diet
consumes unprocessed vegan foods such as whole grains and fruits and vegetables and occasionally consumes fish; also consumes asian vegetables such as diakon, and sea vegetables, such as seaweed.