Who was JFK
John F. Kennedy he was the youngest president in the US and personified the glamour and vitality of the new administration, he assembled one of the youngest cabinets that included his brother RFK, and Robert McNamara took over the Defense Department. "New Frontier". He proposed the Peace Corps which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring americans kills to underdeveloped countries. When he came into office he had to deal with the southern Dem who threatened to team up with the rep and ax the New Frontier proposals such as medical assistance for aged and increased fed aid to education. He forced an expansion of the all important House Rules Committee, dominated by conservatives who could have bottled up his entire legislative program. He tried to negotiate a noninflationary wage agreement in the steel industry which would make the companies not raise prices but that didn't happen. Kennedy also supported the general tax cut bill, he chose to stimulate the economy by slashing taxes and putting more money directly into private hands instead of increasing government spending. He proposed the multibillion dollar space program as well
Who was RFK?
Robert F. Kennedy was the attorney general at 35. As the attorney general he set out reforms to recast the priorities of the FBI. The FBI sent out agents on "internal security" works but only targeted a dozen organized crime and gave no attention to civil rights violations. His efforts were resisted by Edgar Hoover who was the FBI director.
What became of the space program (moon)?
In 1969 24 billion dollars later, Edwin Aldrin and Neil Armstrong landed on the moon
What was the Berlin Wall?
After JFK tried cooperating with the soviets and the soviets threatened to make a treaty with east germany and cut off western access to Berlin, they decided to construct the Berlin Wall in 1961 which was a barbed wire and concrete barrier that was designed to plug the heavy population drain from E. Germany to W. Germany through the Berlin funnel. The wall stood for three decades symbolizing the post WW II division of Europe. It tore down in 1989.
What was the Trade Expansion Act?
This act authorized tariff cuts of up to 50 percent to promote trade with Common Market countries(free trade areas). this led to tariff negotiations, concluded in 1967 and to a significant expansion of European American trade
What were some world problems?
The African Congo got its independence from Belgium in 1960 and then erupted into violence, but the United Nations sent a peacekeeping force.
Laos, freed of its French overlords in 1954, was being threatened by Communism, but at the Geneva conference of 1962, peace was shakily imposed. Defense Secretary McNamara pushed a strategy of "flexible response," which developed an array of military options that could match the gravity of whatever crises came to hand.
One of these was the Green Berets, aka the Special Forces.
What happened in Vietnam during 61-63?
Even with financial help from US there was still a corrupt right wing Diem government. Anti-Diem agitation was spearheaded by the local communist Viet Cong and was encouraged by the north. In 1961 JFK ordered a sharp increase of "military advisers" (us troops) in South Vietnam. American forces entered Vietnam to foster political stability to help protect Dien from communist until he could enact basic social reforms. JFK administration ordered a successful coup against diem in 1963. This contributed to a long process of political disintegration. By the time of his death he sent 15,000 troops to Vietnam.
What happened at Bay of Pigs?
JFK & CIA schemed to take down Castro by invading Cuba with anticommunist exiles who were trained and armed by Americans and supported by American air power which would trigger a popular uprising in cuba and sweep victory. On April 17, 1961 about 1200 exiles landed in the BOP. JFK was against direct intervention and the ancient aircraft of anti castroites were no match for Castro's air force. There was also no popular uprising. They surrendered and many of them were in jail for 2 years but were "ransomed" for $62 million worth of american pharmaceutical drugs and other humanitarian supplies. This actually pushed the Cubans into Soviets embrace
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Khrushchev put nuclear tipped missiles in Cuba and intended to use these weapons to blackmail US into backing out of Berlin. JFK rejected the air force proposal of "surgically" bombing against the missile sites. Oct 22, 1962 he ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba and demanded immediate removal of threatening weaponry, if there was an attack on the US from Cuba then they would regard it as an attack from the USSR and would trigger nuclear retaliation against USSR. For a week America waited to approaching Soviet ships. On October 28 Khrushchev agreed to a partially saving compromise, he would pull the missiles out of cuba while the us would end the quarantine and not invade the island and also removed missiles in Turkey that targeted USSR. USSR launched an enormous program of military expansion so that they would never be humiliated again during a nuclear face off. The dems did better in the midterm elections because the rep were cubanized. there was also a direct phone call line (the "hot line") installed between Washington D.C. and Moscow, in case of any crisis. In June, 1963, Kennedy spoke, urging better feelings toward the Soviets and beginning the modest policy of détente, or relaxed defense.
What did the Freedom Riders do?
in 1960 groups of Freedom Riders fanned out to end segregation in facilities serving interstate bus passengers. A white mob torched a freedom ride bus near Anniston Alabama in may 1961. RBK's personal representative was beaten unconscious in another anti freedom ride riot in Montgomery. when southern officials were unwilling/unable to stop violence Washington dispatched fed marshals to protect the freedom riders
Other struggles for Civil Rights
While Kennedy had campaigned a lot to appeal to Black voters, when it came time to help them, he was hesitant and seemingly unwilling, taking much time to act. Slowly but surely, Kennedy urged civil rights along, encouraging the establishment of the SNCC, a Voter Education Project to register the South's Blacks. Some places desegregated painlessly, but others were volcanoes. 29 year-old James Meredith tried to enroll at the University of Mississippi, but White students didn't let him, so Kennedy had to send some 400 federal marshals and 3000 troops to ensure that Meredith could enroll in his first class.In spring of 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. launched a peaceful campaign against discrimination in Birmingham, Alabama, but police and authorities responded viciously, often using extremely high-pressured water hoses to "hose down" the sit-in strikers. The entire American public watched in horror as the Black protesters were treated with such contempt, since the actions were shown on national TV. Later, on June 11, 1963, JFK made a speech urging immediate action towards this "moral issue" in a passionate plea.Still, more violence followed, as in September 1963, a bomb exploded in a Birmingham church, killing four Black girls who had just finished their church lesson.
What was the "March on Washington"
In August MLK JR led 200,000 blacks and white demonstrators on a peaceful march on washington in support of the proposed legislation which would protect black citizens. He had his 'I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial
Describe the events that happened during and after the assassination of JFK
JFK was in an open limousine in downtown Dallas, Texas on Nov 22, 163, he was shot in the brain by a concealed rifleman and died within seconds. The alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was shot to death in front of tv cameras by a self appointed avenger Jack Ruby. This made a lot of conspiracy theories and doubts. VP LBJ was made pres. The nation was full of sorrow. It was only after Kennedy's death that America realized what a charismatic, energetic, and vibrant president they had lost. JFK laid to rest that Catholics could be trusted as a pres.
Who was Lyndon Blaine Johnson?
LBJ had a political history, had been a senator in the 1940s and 50s, and his idol was Franklin D. Roosevelt, and he could manipulate Congress very well. He became a liberal and shed his conservative side when he became pres. Supported the Civil Rights Act. He issued an executive order requiring all federal contractors to take affirmative action against discrimination in 1965. He had a domestic program known as the "Great Society" which was like the new deals for economic and welfare measures aimed at transforming the american way of life
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
This act banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public like theaters hospitals etc. It strengthened fed govs power to end segregation in schools and other public places. It created a federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to eliminate discrimination in hiring. Conservatives wanted to Prohibit on sexual as well as racial discrimination the tactic backfired. The acts Title VII passed with sexual clause intact, it soon proved to be a powerful instrument of fed enforced gender equality and racial equality.
Describe the Election of 1964
LBJ was renominated by the Dem, the Rep chose Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona who was a champion of conservatism. Goldwater attacked the federal income tax, social security, the TVA, civil rights legislation, the nuclear test ban treaty, and the Great society. Goldwater radiated sincerity and charm but his aggressive "rightism" repelled millions of his own fellow reps. He urged that American field commanders be given discretionary authority to use tactical weapons. Johnson cultivated the contrasting image of a resolute statesman by seizing upon the Tonkin Gulf episode in August 1964. Johnson was made pres because of voters fondness for JFK legacy, faith in Great Society promises, and fear of Goldwater. Johnson got 43 pop votes and had 486 electoral votes. Goldwater carried his native states and five other states which were all in the South. Because of LBJ 61 percent of pop vote is made dem majorities in both houses of congress
What was the Tolkin Gulf Resolution.
US navy ships had been cooperating with S. Vietnamese gunboats in provocative raids along the coast of N. Vietnam(this was unknown by us public and congress). two of these American destroyers were allegedly fired upon by the N. Vietnamese on August 2 & 4, Suggestion shows n. Vietnamese fired in self defense on the 2 and the attack on the 4 didn't happen. Johnson attacked the "unprovoked" and moved swiftly to make a political hay out of the episode, he ordered a limited retaliatory air raid against the north Vietnamese bases and proclaimed that he sought no wider war. LBJ passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which only had two dissenting votes in both houses, this abdicated their war declaring powers and handed the president a blank check to use further force in S.E Asia. was like a grandma's shirt because it covered everything
What was the Great Society Legislation (big four)?
The Big four was- aid to education, medical care for elderly and indigent, immigration, and a new voting rights bill. Aid to Education-educational aid to students and not schools thus allowing funds to flow hard pressed parochial institutions. Medical Care- Medicare for the elderly and medicaid for the poor became reality in 1965. Were welcomed by millions of older americans who had no health insurance and by the poor who couldnt afford the proper medical treatment. This was only for certain categories of Americans, these programs were part of spreading "rights revolutions" that materially improved the lives of millions of americans but eventually underlined the federal gov financial health. Immigration-Immigration and Nationality Act 1965 abolished at last the "national origin" quota system that had been placed since 1921. Doubled the number of immigrants (290000) to allow to enter annually while setting limits on immigrants from western hemisphere (120,000) This also further provided admission for close relatives of us citizens, about 100000 took advantage of its family unification provisions. many immigrants from asia and latin america. Voting- Voting Rights Act outlawed literacy test and sent federal voter registrars into several southern states and attacked racial discrimination at the polls. The 24th Amendment eliminated poll taxes, and in the "freedom summer" of 1964, both Blacks and White students joined to combat discrimination and racism.
Black Revolution
However, in June of 1964, a Black and two White civil rights workers were found murdered, and 21 White Mississippians were arrested for the murders, but the all-White jury refused to convict the suspects. Also, an integrated "Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party" was denied its seat.
Early in 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. resumed a voter-registration campaign in Selma, Alabama, but was assaulted with tear gas by state troopers. LBJ's response the stunned American people sped more reform.
Who was Malcolm X and what was Black power?
Born Malcolm Little he was a charismatic black leader was a hypnotizing speaker who could rivet and arouse crowds with his call for black separatism, he was inspired by the militant black nationalist in the nations of islam like Elijah Muhammed. He distanced himself from Elijah Muhammeds separatims preaching and move towards mainstream islam. The Black Panther party openly brandished weapons in the streets of Oakland Cali. Black power became a rallying cry by Blacks seeking more rights, but just as they were getting them, more riots broke out, and nervous Whites threatened with retaliation. Black Power was to emphasized African American distinctiveness and promoted "afro" hairstyles and dress and shed their white names and demanded black studies programs in schools and universities. Tragically, on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated. Quietly, though, thousands of Blacks registered to vote and went into integrated classrooms, and they slowly built themselves into a political power group.
What was Operation Rolling Thunder?
LBJ ordered a retaliatory bombing raids against military installations in North Vietnam and for the first time ordered attacking the US troops to land. March 1965 ORT was in full swing which was a full scale bombing attacks against north vietnam, before 1965 about 184,000 american troops were involved.
By 1968, LBH had sent more than half a million troops to Asia, and was pouring in $30 billion annually, yet the end was nowhere in sight.America was floundering in Vietnam and was being condemned for its actions there, and French leader Charles de Gaulle also ordered NATO off French soil in 1966. Meanwhile, numerous protests in America went against the Vietnam War and the draft. Opposition was headed by the influential Senate Committee of Foreign Relations, headed by Senator William Fullbright of Arkansas. "Doves" (peace lovers) and "war hawks" (war supporters) clashed. Both sides (the U.S. and North Vietnam) did try to have intervals in bombings, but they merely used those as excuses to funnel more troops into the area.
LBJ also ordered the CIA to spy on domestic antiwar activists, and he encouraged the FBI to use its counterintelligence program ("Cointelpro") against the peace movement. More and more, America was trapped in the awful Vietnam War, and it couldn't get out, thus feeding more and more hatred and resentment to the American public. Johnson was personally suffering at the American casualties, as he wept as he signed condolence letters and even prayed with Catholic monks in a nearby church—at night, secretly, and the fact that North Vietnam had almost taken over Saigon in a blistering offensive during Tet, the Vietnamese new year, didn't help either. Johnson also saw a challenge for the Democratic ticket from Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy, and the nation, as well as the Democratic Party, was starting to be split by Vietnam. LBJ refused to sign an order for more troops to Vietnam. Then, on March 31, 1968, Johnson declared that he would stop sending in troops to Vietnam and that he would not run in 1968, shocking America.
What was the 6 day war?
june 1967, Israel stunned Egyptians, when the war ended Israel occupied new territories in the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, Gaza Strop and the West Bank of Jordan River and Jerusalem. Israelis eventually withdrew from Sinai they refused to relinquish the other areas and even introduced Jewish settlers into the heavily arab district of west bank.
What was the Tet Offensive?
January 1968 was Tet the Vietnamese New Year, Viet Cong was supposed to be taking time off but they suddenly and simultaneously mounted savage attacks on 27 key south vietnamese cities including Saigon, they eventually beaten off with heavy losses and demonstrated anew that victory could not be gained with LBJ's strategy of gradual escalation. It was a political victory for Viet Cong. Americans wanted a speedy end to the war. American military leaders requested for 200,000 more troops and this was the largest single increment yet, this request staggered many policymakers.
Describe the Election of 1968
Eugene McCarthy a poet and a devout Catholic gathered a small army of antiwar college students as campaign workers for his dem campaign. RFK later entered the dem ballot. LBJ decided to not run for pres. Hubert Humphrey was LBJ's vp and was a dem nominee, he loyally supported LBJ's vietnam policies. June 5, 1968 RFK was shot to death by a young Arab immigrant. Nixon was Rep nominee who was the former vp, he pleased the Goldwater conservatives and was acceptable to party moderates and appealed to white southern voters. Rep platform called for victory in Vietnam and strong anticrime policy. Vietnam was a less crucial issue because both sides wanted to stay in there and win the war. Nixon got 301 electoral votes and had 43.7 pop votes compared to Humphrey's 42.7 . Nixon didn't carry a single major city, he received no clear mandate and was a minority pres who owed his election to divisions over war, protest against unfair draft, crime and rioting.
The Death of LBJ
Poor Lyndon Johnson returned to his Texas ranch and died there in 1973. He worked hard for civil rights and had shown more compassion for the poor, blacks, and the ill educated. He strove to prove that he could be a peoples president. He had committed American into Vietnam with noble intentions, and he really wasn't a bad guy, but he was stuck in a time when he was damned if he did and damned if he didn't.
What was the Free Speech Movement?
One of the first organized protest against established authority broke out at UC Berkeley in the 1964. The leaders condmned the impersonal bureaucratization of higher education and urged students to be free, and fired by seething resentment against the vietnam war many sons and daughters turned to drugs and listened to acid rock and dropped from straight society
What was the counterculture?
It blatantly opposed traditional american ways, like women wearing trousers and men with long hair
What were other cultural upheaval?
In the 60s, the youth of America experimented with sex, drugs, and defiance. They protested a lot against conventional wisdom and beliefs.Such poets like Allen Ginsberg and novelists like Jack Kerouac voiced these opinions. Movies like Rebel without a Cause also showed this belief. Kids tried drugs, "did their own thing" in new institutions, and rejected patriotism. In 1948, Indiana University "sexologist" Dr. Alfred Kinsey had published Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, and had followed that book five years later with a female version, and his findings about the incidence of premarital sex and adultery were very controversial. He also estimated that 10% of all American males were gay. The Manhattan Society, founded in LA in 1951, pioneered gay rights. Students for a Democratic Society, once against war, later spawned an underground terrorist group called the Weathermen. The upheavals of the 1960s can largely be attributed to the three P's: the youthful population bulge, the protest against racism and the Vietnam War, and the apparent permanence of prosperity, but as the 1970s rolled around, this prosperity gave way to stagnation. However, the "counterculture" of the youths of the 1960s did significantly weaken existing values, ideas, and beliefs.