Science Semester Exam
Terms in this set (70)
anything that has mass and takes up volume.
The measure of the amount of matter in a object.
the amount of space taken up by an object
a substance that has definite shape and volume
a substance that has definite volume but not definite shape
a substance that has neither definite shape nor volume.
a hot ionized gas that is the most common phase of ordinary matter in the universe
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
a substance that can be broken down into stable simpler substances
a combination of two or more substances in such a way that no chemical reaction takes places between the components; they components can be separated.
mixture in which the components are noticeably different from each other.
a mixture in which it is very difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another.
a homogeneous mixture which contains particles that are as small as they can be; these particles remain evenly distributed over time.
the substance that is dissolved in a solution.
it is the agent that dissolves the solute.
the ability of one substance to be dissolved by another
a heterogeneous mixture containing particles which are large enough for sedimentation
a complex mixture that contains particles of various sizes
separating the components of fluid mixtures by using the differences in their vaporization (boiling) points.
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance.
the resistance of a liquid to flowing
the ability of a substance to conduct heat or electricity.
the ability of a material to be hammered without shattering
a change of state in which a solid becomes a gas.
a change of state in which a gas turns directly into a solid.
a change of state in which a gas turns into a liquid
a change of state in which a liquid turns into a gas.
a property that describes how a substance behaves as it changes into a different substance.
Law of Conservation of Mass
provides that mass in neither destroyed or created during ordinary chemical reactions.
Englishman whose work led to his recognition as a founder of atomic theory.
an atom that has a different number of neutrons than what is standard for a particular element.
Englishman whose work with cathode rays led to the discovery of the electron.
Englishman whose gold foil experiment led to the discovery of the proton.
Englishman whose work led to the discovery of the neutron.
the number of protons that an element has
it is the number of subatomic located inside an atom's nucleus; it equals the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
a negatively charged subatomic particle located outside of the nucleus of an atom.
a positively charged subatomic particle inside of an atom's nucleus.
a neutral subatomic particle located inside of an atom's nucleus.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
provides that no more than two electrons a single orbital.
provides that electrons fill the orbitals with lowest energy levels first and work outward.
a tabular arrangement of the elements organized on the basis of atomic numbers, electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.
Russian scientist who is credited with the development of the Periodic Table.
English scientist whose work led to the idea that physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.
main group elements
consists of the elements of the s block ( Groups 1 and 2) and the p block ( Groups 13 - 18) in the Periodic Table.
electrons located in the outermost energy level of an element; they are responsible for the chemical properties of the element.
the time required for half of a large number of identical radioactive atoms to decay.
the inert (chemically inactive) elements of Group 18 of the Periodic Table.
a gas that is listed atop of Group 1 due to its atomic number; it has properties that do not closely resemble those of any other element. It is also the most common element in the universe.
an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of non-metals.
it is the tendency of atoms to match the s and p configurations of noble gases in chemical reactions.
it is an atom with a net positive or net negative charge.
it is a positively charged ion
it is a negatively charged ion
it is a force that hold the cations made by metal and the anion made by non-metals together.
it is the amount of energy that is needed to remove an electron from an atom
a notation that shows what elements are contained in a compound and the ratio of these atoms or ions of these elements in the compound
a chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair (or pairs) of electrons in order to gain a stable configuration.
covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond
covalent bond in which electron are not shared equally.
the measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons.
molecule that has a partial negative charge and a partial positive charge.
the ability of an element to form more than one type of ion.
it is a mixture of two or more elements which has the properties of a metal; at least one the elements must be a metal.
these are the elements that make up Group 1 in the Periodic Table; examples are lithium, sodium, and potassium. This is the most chemically active family in the Periodic Table.
alkaline earth metals
these are the elements that make up Group 2 in the Periodic Table; examples are beryllium, magnesium, and calcium.
these are the elements of Group 17 of the Periodic Table; examples are chlorine, fluorine, and bromine. This is the only family of elements whose members represent all three phases of matter.
kinetic molecular theory
provides that all particles of matter are in constant motion.
it is a proposed answer to a question; it is typically stated in terms of cause and effect.
the study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter.