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Stylistic changes between baroque and Classical

Rhythms changes in piece; Clear/simple texture; singing melodies;Pre-classical had a light and witty feel

Style Galant

Light-hearted Music intended to please, not move the audience.

Alberti Bass

Homophonic accompaniment that makes use of arpeggiated block chords.


Comic Opera put on in between the acts of an Opera Seria (Serious Opera). Makes use of stock characters; General Theme of lowborn outwitting highborn

Charles Burney

Music Historian that gives us an idea of how musicians sounded in that time.


Famous poet that wrote the Libretti for the leading operas of the pre-classical and classical eras.


Opera Composer; Revolutionized the Overture prior to the beginning of an opera. More of a way to create a separate instrumental genre; Made use of Classical characters; Three Acts of alternating arias and recits and made use of Da Capo arias to suggest an exit and encourage applause.

Faustina Bordini

Famous soprano; Married to Hasse

Gluck's Opera Reform

Main goal was to reinstate the drama as the driving force, not the singers themselves; Arias and recits placed in order to portray the action, not just because the singers want another chance to sing; Simplification of plot and reduction of amount of characters; Increased the importance of the orchestra by adding more accompanied recitative and making the overture more integral to the drama of the opera.

Scarlatti (1685-1757)

Wrote 555 keyboard sonatas; 1719 - Became keyboard teacher of portuguese princess; 1728 - princess married to prince of Spain and Scarlatti came with her, where he was for the rest of his career.

Characteristics of Scarlatti's music

Homophonic texture, use of alberti bass; Dramatically contrasting themes; Binary form; modulations to remote keys for dramatic effect.

CPE Bach

Composer and musician for the Court of Frederick the Great in Hamburg(1740-68); Music Director of the 5 principal churches in Hamburg(1768-1788); Wrote Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments; Revolutionized with Empfindesamer Stil, the counter to Style Galant.

Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard instruments

Written by CPE Bach; Shows off performance practice in the pre-classical era.

Empfindsamer Stil

Emphasizes introspective expression; Represents the self-absorbed, impulsive side of human nature; Variety of sentiments in rapid succession.


Famous flutist and composer; wrote essay of a method for playing the transverse flute.

Essay of a method for playing the trasnverse flute.

Written by Quantz; important literature because it describes perfomance practice, specifically ornamentation.

Development of the Symphony

Developed from the Italian Opera overture or Sinfonia; Opera overure contained three movements, performed fast - slow - fast with the third section being dance-like in character; Next came the concert overture, which was basically an opera overture minus the opera with increased instumentation; Kept developing through Sammartini and Stamitz.

Instrumentation of Concert Overture

Strings, 2 oboes, 2 horns, continuo.

Major Centers of Symphonic Development

Milan - Sammartini;
Hamburg - CPE Bach;
Vienna - Monn and Wagensal;
Berlin - Graun;
Mannheim - Stamitz;

Sammartini's Symphonies

Three movements; First movement in binary form, second half of first movement contains recapitulation in the tonic key; Instrumentation - Strings and Continuo.

Stamitz's Symphonies

Development of four-movement structure with the third movement being a minuet. Largest orchestra in Europe; Known for special effects like Mannheim roll and Mannheim Rocket.

Haydn's Biography

1732-1809; Born into a poor family while the Baroque style was still current; Was a choirboy until his voice changed, then thrown out on the street; Achieved ultimate position in 1761(aged 29) serving Prince Paul Esterhazy; Journeyed to London 1790; Lived in Vienna from 1795 to death.

Haydn's symphonies

1757-67 - Style Galant works that borrowed from Italy, Mannheim, North Germany, and Vennese Models;

1768-72 - More Substantial works such as Sturm und Drang;
Differences: Minor key, wide leaps and melodic ranges, increased dynamic range and contrast, dense textures;

1773-81 - Popular and appealing works with a serious side

1780s - Paris symphonies

1789/90 - Oxford symphony/ London symphony

Standard structure for classical symphony

First Movement - Fast - In sonata form - Some included slow introduction, which was not part of the sonata form;

Second movement - Slow - Theme and Variations or ABA;

Third Movement - Moderate Speed - Minuet - Trio

Minuet Trio Minuet

Fourth movement - Fast - Sonata or Rondo or Sonata-rondo;

Oxford symphony

First movement - Sonata;
Slow intro
Theme 1 - Three contrasting ideas in tone
Transition to dominant
2nd key area begins with theme 1 and a countermelody in the dominant

Second Movement - ABA form
Middle Section in parallel minor

Third movement - Minuet and Trio
six-measure phrases and sforzandos to keep listener off-balance

Fourth movement - Sonata form

Haydn String Quartets

82 Quartets
Opp 1 and 2(1764/66) - Divertimento, Galant styled, Violin 1 carried melody, simple;

Op 20 (1772) - More serious in tone, elements of Sturm und drang, independence of 4 parts;

OP 31 (1781) - six quartets - 10 year gap since op 20; Thematic fragmentation, manipulation and development; Substituted scherzo for minuet;

Op 33 - Rondo Form (ABACABA Coda); Refrain is a small rounded binary form; in 4th movement, episodes develop figures from the theme instead of using new material; Humorous touches pervade movement;


light-hearted style of music composed for a small orchestra to be played at social gatherings; Half-listened to.


Related to Divertimento except with a large orchestra.


Comical music; Trick is played by breaking normal metric patterns and adding sudden silence.


Thematic catalogue of Haydn's works.

Haydn's Vocal Music

Composed throughout career;

Composed Oratorio, cantats, masses, opera, solo songs;

Influenced by Handel's Messiah: "the master of us all"

Baron von Swieten

Introduced many Classical composers to vocal writing of Handel's and Bach's by way of performances and patronage; Also created the libretto for The Creation (haydn)

The Creation

Oratorio completed by Haydn when he was 67; Scored for 3 soloists,4-part chorus, and full orchestra.

Tone Painting - Representation of Chaos in the beginning by way of C minor, then a drastic move into C Major to represent the arrival of God ("In the beginning, God").

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