Stylistic changes between baroque and Classical
Rhythms changes in piece; Clear/simple texture; singing melodies;Pre-classical had a light and witty feel
Comic Opera put on in between the acts of an Opera Seria (Serious Opera). Makes use of stock characters; General Theme of lowborn outwitting highborn
Famous poet that wrote the Libretti for the leading operas of the pre-classical and classical eras.
Opera Composer; Revolutionized the Overture prior to the beginning of an opera. More of a way to create a separate instrumental genre; Made use of Classical characters; Three Acts of alternating arias and recits and made use of Da Capo arias to suggest an exit and encourage applause.
Gluck's Opera Reform
Main goal was to reinstate the drama as the driving force, not the singers themselves; Arias and recits placed in order to portray the action, not just because the singers want another chance to sing; Simplification of plot and reduction of amount of characters; Increased the importance of the orchestra by adding more accompanied recitative and making the overture more integral to the drama of the opera.
Wrote 555 keyboard sonatas; 1719 - Became keyboard teacher of portuguese princess; 1728 - princess married to prince of Spain and Scarlatti came with her, where he was for the rest of his career.
Characteristics of Scarlatti's music
Homophonic texture, use of alberti bass; Dramatically contrasting themes; Binary form; modulations to remote keys for dramatic effect.
Composer and musician for the Court of Frederick the Great in Hamburg(1740-68); Music Director of the 5 principal churches in Hamburg(1768-1788); Wrote Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments; Revolutionized with Empfindesamer Stil, the counter to Style Galant.
Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard instruments
Written by CPE Bach; Shows off performance practice in the pre-classical era.
Emphasizes introspective expression; Represents the self-absorbed, impulsive side of human nature; Variety of sentiments in rapid succession.
Essay of a method for playing the trasnverse flute.
Written by Quantz; important literature because it describes perfomance practice, specifically ornamentation.
Development of the Symphony
Developed from the Italian Opera overture or Sinfonia; Opera overure contained three movements, performed fast - slow - fast with the third section being dance-like in character; Next came the concert overture, which was basically an opera overture minus the opera with increased instumentation; Kept developing through Sammartini and Stamitz.
Major Centers of Symphonic Development
Milan - Sammartini;
Hamburg - CPE Bach;
Vienna - Monn and Wagensal;
Berlin - Graun;
Mannheim - Stamitz;
Three movements; First movement in binary form, second half of first movement contains recapitulation in the tonic key; Instrumentation - Strings and Continuo.
Development of four-movement structure with the third movement being a minuet. Largest orchestra in Europe; Known for special effects like Mannheim roll and Mannheim Rocket.
1732-1809; Born into a poor family while the Baroque style was still current; Was a choirboy until his voice changed, then thrown out on the street; Achieved ultimate position in 1761(aged 29) serving Prince Paul Esterhazy; Journeyed to London 1790; Lived in Vienna from 1795 to death.
1757-67 - Style Galant works that borrowed from Italy, Mannheim, North Germany, and Vennese Models;
1768-72 - More Substantial works such as Sturm und Drang;
Differences: Minor key, wide leaps and melodic ranges, increased dynamic range and contrast, dense textures;
1773-81 - Popular and appealing works with a serious side
1780s - Paris symphonies
1789/90 - Oxford symphony/ London symphony
Standard structure for classical symphony
First Movement - Fast - In sonata form - Some included slow introduction, which was not part of the sonata form;
Second movement - Slow - Theme and Variations or ABA;
Third Movement - Moderate Speed - Minuet - Trio
Minuet Trio Minuet
Fourth movement - Fast - Sonata or Rondo or Sonata-rondo;
First movement - Sonata;
Theme 1 - Three contrasting ideas in tone
Transition to dominant
2nd key area begins with theme 1 and a countermelody in the dominant
Second Movement - ABA form
Middle Section in parallel minor
Third movement - Minuet and Trio
six-measure phrases and sforzandos to keep listener off-balance
Fourth movement - Sonata form
Haydn String Quartets
Opp 1 and 2(1764/66) - Divertimento, Galant styled, Violin 1 carried melody, simple;
Op 20 (1772) - More serious in tone, elements of Sturm und drang, independence of 4 parts;
OP 31 (1781) - six quartets - 10 year gap since op 20; Thematic fragmentation, manipulation and development; Substituted scherzo for minuet;
Op 33 - Rondo Form (ABACABA Coda); Refrain is a small rounded binary form; in 4th movement, episodes develop figures from the theme instead of using new material; Humorous touches pervade movement;
light-hearted style of music composed for a small orchestra to be played at social gatherings; Half-listened to.
Comical music; Trick is played by breaking normal metric patterns and adding sudden silence.
Haydn's Vocal Music
Composed throughout career;
Composed Oratorio, cantats, masses, opera, solo songs;
Influenced by Handel's Messiah: "the master of us all"
Baron von Swieten
Introduced many Classical composers to vocal writing of Handel's and Bach's by way of performances and patronage; Also created the libretto for The Creation (haydn)