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Terms in this set (64)

Concrete operational
Formal operations

Each one is marked by changes in schemas


Birth-2 years
Characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally
-- object permanence: objects exist even when out of view --deferred imitation: perform an action observed earlier


2-7 years
Characterized by the ability to construct mental representations of experience, but not yet perform operations (transformations) on them
Symbolic behavior-mental representation that differs from physical experience
Egocentrism-inability to see world from others' perspectives

Being egocentric means having no Theory of Mind— -A set of ideas about the mental processes of others. "Putting yourself in someone else's shoes."

false belief task:
tests children's ability to understand that someone else believes something that they know to be wrong

Also LACK conservation: Do not recognize that number, weight, volume, etc. stay the same even if appearance changes
-Thinking dominated by appearance of things
-Focus on sates---not transformations

Conservation: Piagetian task requiring children to understand that despite a transformation in the physical
presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same


7-11 years
Characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only
Have Conservation


11 years to adulthood
Characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and now

Can think about possibilities and hypotheticals: think about the meaning of life; if then statements
Can make and test predictions
Piaget: Only 50% of people reach
Continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability across many areas of life functioning

panic disorder:

Continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability across many areas of life functioning


Intense fear of an object or situation that's greatly out of proportion to its actual threat

Agoraphobia: Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or embarrassing, or in which help is unavailable in the event of a panic attack
Specific phobia: Intense fear of objects, places, or situations that is greatly out of proportion to their actual threat
Social phobia: Marked fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation is possible

social anxiety disorder:
anxiety in social situations

somatic symptoms disorder:
Condition marked by excessive anxiety about physical symptoms with a medical or purely psychological origin

Marked emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event
Event must be physically dangerous or life-threatening, either to oneself or someone else

Flashbacks; avoid thoughts, feelings, places, and conversations with the trauma; recurrent dreams of the trauma increased arousal, such as sleep difficulties and startling easily

Condition marked by repeated and lengthy (at least one hour per day) immersion in obsessions, compulsions, or both

Obsession: Persistent idea, thought, or impulse that is unwanted and inappropriate, causing marked distress
Compulsion: Repetitive behavior or mental act performed to reduce or prevent stress
Dissociative disorders: Conditions involving disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
Dissociative Disorder: Sudden disruption in memory, identity
Dissociative fugue: Sudden loss of personal memory, set up new identity, new location
Dissociative amnesia: Sudden memory loss, without creating new identity, leaving home
Depersonalization disorder: repeated episodes of feeling detached from yourself, as though you are living in a movie or dream or observing your body
from the perspective of an outsider
Dissociative identity disorder: Person appears to have more than one identity
Each speaks, acts, writes in a different way
Each seems to have its own memories, wishes, conflicting impulses The "alters" or different identities have their own age, sex, or race. Each has his or her own postures, gestures, and distinct way of talking. Sometimes the alters are imaginary people; sometimes they are animals. As each personality reveals itself and controls the individuals' behavior and thoughts, it's called "switching." Switching can take seconds to minutes to days. When under hypnosis, the person's different "alters" or identities may be very responsive to the therapist's requests.
Along with the dissociation and multiple or split personalities, people with dissociative disorders may experience any of the following symptoms:
Mood swings
Suicidal tendencies
Sleep disorders (insomnia, night terrors, and sleep walking)
Anxiety, panic attacks, and phobias (flashbacks, reactions to stimuli or "triggers")
Alcohol and drug abuse
Compulsions and rituals
Psychotic-like symptoms (including auditory and visual hallucinations)
Eating disorders