Praxis: Theatre (5641)

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American Alliance of Theatre Education (AATE)promotes standards in theatre educationActors Accessprovides resume services, articles, audition monologues and linksKonstantin StanislavksiFather of Modern Acting; developed a highly influential method of actors training called the System Co-founder of Moscow Arts TheatreJerzy GrotowskiPolish theatrical director & innovator of experimental theatre, the "theatre laboratory" and "poor theatre." Music by actors, avoided machinery, special effects, make-up, costume changes.Uta HagenGerman-born American actress and drama teacher. Training through improvisation techniques to later use in characters Respect for Acting Who's Afraid of Virgina Woolf?Viola SpolinAmerican dramatist Made improv popular Developed exercises for actors to improve improvisation skillsLee StrasbergAmerican acting teacher & disciple of Stanislavski Developed a school of acting based in emotional memory/recallStella AdlerAmerican acting teacher and disciple of Stanislavski who based her work on close attention to the textAnne BogartViewpoints, Improv-ensemble buildingAugusto BoalTheatre artist, theorist, and creator of the "Theatre of the Oppressed" Designs theatre events for the disenfranchised to encourage and support social change Form TheatreEnvironmentalEliminates distinction between audience and actorsLEDSLight-emitting diodes; alternative to traditional stage lighting instruments high light output with lower power consumptionEllipsoidal"ER" Sharp edge, highly controlled pool of light, can project a pattern (gobo)FresnelAdjustable beam spreads, from spot to flood, soft edge, color washesPar cansColor wash and back lighting, flare and very soft beam edgeFollow spotnarrow spotlight used to "follow" a performer, provides highlights to a performerDigital Audio Workstation (D.A.W.)electronic device or computer software application for recording, editing, and producing audio filesComputer-aided design (CAD)use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a designMIDI Show Control (MSC) protocolExtention of the international Music Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) standard that enables entertainment equipment to easily communicate with each other through the process of show controlAeschylus, Sophocles, EuripidesMost famous Greek TragediansChristopher MarlowFamed blank verse, Tamburlane and The Jew of Malta, paved the way for Shakespeare A poet and fiction writerSamuel BeckettTheatre of the AbsurdRestoration TheaterComedy of Manners Charles II (1660) allowed 2 companies to perform in England William Davenant in charge of Duke's Company Thomas Killigrew in charge of King's Company Notable playwrights of this type of comedy: William Wycherly, George Etherege, William Congreve Themes: Comical nature of love and marriageWilliam CongreveWay of the World, which represented various characters of society in Comedy of Manners (Restoration Theatre)Commedia dell'arteImprovisational comedy developed in Renaissance Italy Involved stock characters Farce, buffoonery, standard characters had tremendous influence on Western comedyMichael ChekhovTrained with Stanislavksi Developed "the psychological gesture:" character can be successful by the creation of notable, telling gestures that sum up their feelings, designers, emotionsPhysiognomyart of judging human character from facial featuresSanford MeisnerMember of Group Theatre Think like the character, not like an actor Get out of the head and act naturally "live truthfully under imaginary circumstances," RepetitionCalderon De la Barcawrote hundreds of autos sacramentales (sacramental tales) and secular "cloak and sward" plays that reflected values of Spanish Golden Age Plays had more symbolism than VegaJohn HeywoodDramatist who turned moralities from the middle ages into modern productions by fleshing out the allegorical charactersMoliéreFrench master of comedy The Misanthrope, The School for Wives, Tartuffe, The Miser, The Imaginary Invalid, The Bourgeois GentlemanPunchdrunkContemporary theatre company known for creating immersive productions, including audience movement (promenade) and nontraditional spacesRobert WilsonExperimental and avant-garde theatre directorPeripeteiaAristotle's "turning point"Morality playsDidactic dramas whose characters were allegorical and represented virtues and faults.Post modernismTheoretical perspective focusing on issues of power and voiceAdolphe Appia1900s scenic designer Replaced flat scenery with 3D structures like steps, platforms, ramps Light used for angles and dimensionProcess CenteredFocus on Process, journey of understanding theatreProduct CenteredFocus on end result of theatre, highly structuredWhite ModelDeals only with special aspects of a set, no color Often used as a preliminary to determine how actors will use the stageAntoid ArtaudTheatre of CrueltyThespisTraditionally the first actor, "chorus leader" Stepped apart from chorus and began to engage in dialogue with them, involved in beginning of tragedy formEugene IonescoFrench dramatist, leading exponent of Theatre of the Absurd Wrote RhinocerosProblem PlayType of drama which was popularized by Ibsen Situation faced by protagonist is present by the author as a representative instance of a contemporary social problem Also used by George Benard ShawCyan, Yellow, and Magenta (CMY)Used to mix colors in moving lightsAdditive ColorTwo beams of different colors are focused onto the same areaSubtractive ColorTwo colors of gels are placed in front of a lanternCIDCompact Iodide Daylight. Light with high intensity lamp that simulates the look of daylightDneouementPoint in a performance at which the plot is revealed of explainedDigital Light Curtain (DLC)Remote-controlled batten with color changesCompact Source Iodide (CSI)Used in follow spotsAnimation DiscMetal disc with slots that can be rotated in front of a lantern to give the effect of movement in the lightFalse PerspectiveDesign technique that makes the set appear larger than it really isHaas Effecta psychoacoustic effect; 0-14 millisecond delay in sound from speakers, allowing audience to remain focused on the actors rather than distracted by the delayed soundHot SpotBrightest part of the beam; certain lanterns have controls to eliminate hot spotsIATSEInternational Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees; the union for stage employeesGeorge FarquharWrote The Recruiting Officer, which was the earliest play in NYC Witty and rauncyFreie Buhne"Free Theatre" Put on productions of plays that had been banned elsewhereMeyerholdIncorporated symbolism into most of his work. Wanted to reinvent commedia dell'arte Used the Delsarte systemDavid BelascoAmerican playwright who wrote Madame Butterfly, The Girl of the GOlden West Furthered NaturalismGao XingjianCreated Chinese Absurdist Theatre Won Nobel Prise in 2000John LylyBrought pastoral to England and created the form of Court ComedyEmile ZolaFrench writer of naturalismIntermezziItalian Renaissance Entertainments performed between acts of operas and full-length playsJean RosenthalPioneer of field of theatrical lightingSpanish DramaTales of knights Ballads with elaborate costumes and scenery Lope de Vegas Calderon de BarcaJapanese NohTraditional Japanese theatre of music, dance, poetry Serene and peaceful mood Based on Eastern religions (Hinduism & Buddhism) Fixed Repertoire William Butler Years adapted Noh for Western Auditiences in a series of short playsAntistropheDevice in Greek drama in which chorus responds to a previous stanza of verseAristotle's PoeticsExposition, complication, reversal, recognition, resolutionClassicismFrench Playwrights in the 17th century Society, reason, and enlightenmentNeo-Classicism18th Century Extravagant costumes, elaborate scenery, stories that involve high degree of melodrama, clearly defined genres of tragedy and comedyElizabethanHigh number of characters, several subplots that eventually mergeRomantacism1750-1800s Mankind's unfaltering trust in kindness of nature Glorification of past civilizations Abstraction and idealismExpressionistExpress raw emotions, not to teach/entertain/duplicate reality Highly exaggerated movements and voice techniques Struggles of a spiritual nature with the protagonist as well as between social classes