America Enters the World Stage
Terms in this set (38)
The policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
•Built up military strength.
•Admiral Alfred T. amahan urged government officials to build up American naval power in order to compete.
•US built 9 steel-hulled cruisers between 1883-1890.
•"Maine" & "Oregon"
•World's 3rd Larget Naval Power
•Advances in technology enabled American farms and factories to produce far more than citizens could consume.
•US needed raw materials for its factories & new markets for its agricultual manufactured goods.
•Imperialists viewed foreign trade as the solution to American over-production & unemployment/economic depression.
•Used to justify imperialism.
•Combined the philosophy of social darwinism & a belief of racial superiority.
•US had a responsibility to spread Christianity & "civilization" to the world's "inferior" people.
•Only one culture.
Purchase Of Alaska
William Seward, Secretary Of State, under Abraham Lincoln & Andrew Johnson. In 1867, he arranged for the US to buy Alaska from Russians for $7.2 million. He had trouble persuading House of Representatives. In 1959, Alaska became a state.
The Cuban Rebellion
America sympathies went out to Cuba. In 1886, Cuban people forced Spain to abolish slavery.
Exaggerates the news to enrage readers. Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer exaggerated accounts. Depended on American sympathy.
De Lome Letter
McKinley took office in 1897, McKinley wanted to avoid war with Spain. In February 1898, the New York Journal published a private letter written by Enrique De Lome. This letter criticized McKinley, called him "weak".
Urged government officials to build up American Naval power in order to compete.
Early in 1898, McKinley ordered this ship to Cuba to bring home American citizens in danger from the fighting. Got blown up.
War in the Caribbean
-Naval blockade of Cuba.
-Admiral William T. Sampson sealed up the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Santiago De Cuba.
-125,000 American volunteers.
War in the Philippines
-First battle of the war.
-On April 30, the American fleet in the Pacific went to the Philippines.
-Commodore George Dewey gave the command to open fire on the Spanish fleet at Manila.
-Destroyed every Spanish ship.
-Had support of Filipinos who wanted freedom from Spain.
Treaty of Paris
-United States and Spain signed an armistice on August 12, ending the 15 week fight. On December 10, 1898 the US and Spain met in Paris. Spain freed Cuba and turned over the islands of Guam in the Pacific and Puerto Rico in the West Indies to the US sold the Philippines to the US for $20 millions.
Why did the Treaty of Paris cause such debate among Americans?
-Arguments centered on whether or not the US had the right to annex the Philippines.
-Imperialism; President McKinley told a group of Methodist Ministers that he had prayed for guidance on the annexation of the Philippines and had concluded "that there was nothing left for us to do, but take them all and to educate the Filipinos and uplift and Christianize them".
-Political, moral, and economic arguments about annexation.
-Treaty violated Declaration of Independence.
-February 6, 1899, the Senate approved the Treaty of Paris.
This amendment said that the United States had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. The Treaty of Paris, which ended the war, further guaranteed Cuba the independence that its nationalist leaders had been demanding for years.
This amendment said that Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control their territory. It said the US reserved the right to intervene in Cuba, Cuba was not to go into debt that its government could not repay, and the US could buy or lease land on the island for navel stations and refugee stations.
Why did the Untied States wish to attain a strong influence in Cuba?
To protect American businesses that had invested in the islands sugar, tobacco, and mining industries. As well as in its railroads and public utilities.
How was the Philippine-American War a "costly" one for both the Philippines and the United States?
Rebel leader was Emilio Aguinaldo. In February 1899 the US used guerrilla tactics. The US forced them to live where poor sanitation, starvation, and disease killed thousands. 70,000 US troops. Lasted 3 years. 20,000 Filipinos died. Cost $4 million (20* more than the islands cost).
Why did the western powers seek to establish spheres of influence in China?
Vast market and railroad opportunities.
Roosevelt said: "Speak softly and carry a big stick." What do you think he meant by this?
Be wise and speak with intention, but defend yourself if you need to. He was warning that disorder in Latin America might "force the us to the exercise of an international police power" the US could now use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America.
Open Door Notes
1899- Policy statements. They were letters addressed to the leaders of imperialist nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the US, creating an open door. So no nation would have a monopoly on trade with any part of China.
Anti-Imperialist League Views
-It was wrong for the US to rule other people without their consent.
What events led to the building of the Panama Canal?
France and Britain were at war and the US was trading with both of these countries. The US said that they were neutral but is then ignored by others. US ships are taken and their sailors are forced to serve in the British Navy. The US congress tries to stop these things from happening. Eventually the US declared war on Britain because of the pressure from the people and Congress.
-Used the US government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American business people.
-Used to justify keeping European Powers out of the Caribbean.
Created by Woodrow Wilson, The US had a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to US interests.
Why did the United States become involved in the affairs of Mexico?
The military dictator, Porfirio Diaz, was a friend of the US and he had long encouraged foreign investments in his country. America owned a large share of Mexican oil wells, mines, railroads, and ranches. In 1911, Mexican peasants and workers led by Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz. Madero promised democratic reforms, but he was unable to satisfy the conflicting demands. After 2 years, General Victoriano Huerta took over the government and Wilson refused to recognize it.
A policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries.
The cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each.
The principle of cooperation among nations, for the promotion of their common good, sometimes as contrasted with nationalism, or devotion to the interests of a particular nation.
Reasons for US expansion?
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
A popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxons to Christian missionary ideas
Belligerent support of one's country.
1898-America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism.
President during Spanish-American War, wanted Spanish to restore order in Cuba/expected it in a diplomatic way, peaceful. Shot.
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixture of Ivy League athletes and western frontiersmen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
26th President, from 1901-1909, passed two acts that purified meat, took over in 1901 when McKinley was shot, Went after trusts, formed the "Bull Moose Party", wanted to build the Panama Canal.