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Humanities Test 5 Textbook
Terms in this set (34)
What caused the population increase between 1000 and 1300?
Increased security and increase in agricultural production
What changes took place in European farming in the High Middle Ages?
Expansion of arable land, warmer climate
What technological changes furthered the expansion of farming in the High Middle Ages?
Use of Iron, the plow, the watermill and windmill
How did those technological changes affect rural community organization?
The community would buy the plow together and also share animals
For what purposes did medieval people use watermills?
To grind grain and produce flowers
Where did windmills originate?
Invented in Persia
What crops were planted in the three-field system?
1: grains (rye and wheat)
2: oats, barley, and legumes
How did higher food prices affect relations between lords and serfs?
Serfs were made free peasants but had to pay rent to lords instead
What were the three great feasts of the Catholic Church?
Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost
What were peasant dwellings like?
Who comprised a typical peasant family?
Husband and wife with 2 or 3 children
What foods made up the peasant diet? How heavily did people drink?
Mainly bread, tyler is dumb and says probably heavy
What three basic groups made up medieval society?
Men of prayer, men of war, men of work
How were lords and knights different from one another? How did that change?
Lords held extensive lands and political power. Knights were barely above peasants, but this changed in the 12th and 13th century. Then, noble and knight became to mean the same thing.
What steps did the Church take to reduce the violence that knights inflicted on society?
The church issued the "Peace of God" which was no attacking noncombatants and "Truce of God" no fighting on Sundays and primary feast days
What were the main parts of a medieval castle?
Permanent residences for noble families, its retainers, and servants, and were defensible fortifications
What rights did aristocratic women have? Who were the "ladies-in-waiting"?
They could legally hold and inherit property but mostly remained under the control of men. Ladies in waiting were young girls sent to nobles castles to learn the skills to run an estate, among other things.
Under the code of chivalry, what were knights supposed to fight for?
Only for glory
Only for glory
What alternative to socially destructive fighting began to appear in the 12th century?
Tournaments of melee later joust
What were the differences between melees and jousts?
Melee warriors on horseback fought with blunted weapons in a free for all combat. Jousts were individual combat between two knights
What purposes were aristocratic marriages supposed to accomplish?
Establish alliances with other families, bring new wealth, and provide heirs to carry on the family line
What cities took the lead in the revival of European trade in the early Middle Ages?
Italy: Venice, Cairo, Damascus
The woolen trade was dominated by the towns of what European region?
Bruges and Ghent
What region was famous for its trade fairs?
Champagne in Northern France
The revival of a money economy with new trading companies and banks were part of the rise of what form of economy?
Capitalism (money economy)
What led to the revival of cities?
The revival of trade
Who typically founded new cities and towns in the Middle Ages? Where did they do it and why?
Groups of artisans and merchants near castles or monastery because they were located along major routes of transportation and lords offered protection
What is the meaning of borough/burgh/burg?
A fortress or walled enclosure
Who were the bourgeoisie?
the merchants and artisans of boroughs and burghs
What rights were guaranteed by charters of liberties?
Rights to bequeath goods/sell property, freedom from military obligation to the lord, written urban law that guaranteed their freedom, and for serfs to become free after residing a year and a day in the town
What were communes? How did they come into existence?
An association where townspeople experienced difficulty in obtaining privileges and resorted to force against their lay or lords
How did towns in northern Europe differ from those in northern Italy?
In Italy the decline of the emperor's authority ensured that the cities could function as self-governing republics. Northern Europe didn't become independent city-states but remained subject to royal authority
What were the typical institutions of medieval town government? How were they chosen?
City councillors were mainly responsibility for running the city affairs. The electoral process was engineered to ensure that only the wealthiest and most powerful families were elected
In what ways did medieval governments regulate town life?
Might regulate air and water pollution
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