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144 terms

Mammalogy Lab Practical #2

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Hystricomorpha:
Large infraorbital canal for masseter that originates on rostrum
Myomorpha:
Slit-like infraorbital canal for masseter that originates of rostrum
Sciuromorpha:
No infraorbital canal
masseter originates on anterior plate/fossa of zygoma
Sciurognathus:
Flat-sided dentary with obvious coronoid process
Hystricognathus:
Flared out dentary with reduced coronoid process
Lower Primates
Strepsirhini
Strepsirhini Orders
1) Daubentoniidae,
2) Lemuridae,
3) Galagonidae,
4) Loridae
Higher Primates
Haplorhini
Haplorhini Orders
1) Tarsiidae,
2) Calltrichidae,
3) Cebidae,
4) Cercopithecidae,
5) Hylobatidae,
6) Hominidae
Lemuridae
Restricted to Madagascar,
Long rostrum,
orbits directed to side,
elongate braincase
Daubentoniidae
Narrow rostrum,
chisel-like teeth,
thin probing digit to pull grubs out of trees, Madagascar
Loridae
Orbits are large and forward,
temporal ridges,
Asia and Africa
Galagonidae
Orbits directed to side,
no temporal ridges,
sagittal crest,
Africa
Tarsiidae
Huge eyes,
expanded tips (pads) on digits,
elongate hindlimbs,
5 cheek teeth,
Indonesia & Borneo
Calltrichidae
Marmosets & tamarins,
small skulls,
5 cheek teeth,
South America
Cebidae
New World Monkeys,
Six cheek teeth,
molars with hollowed groove running down middle, most with prehensile tails,
C & S. Am
Cercopithecidae
Old world monkeys,
long rostrum/canines,
lower 1st premolar sharp angle,
4 cusped molars,
Africa & Asia
Hylobatidae
Long arms,
no tail,
short rostrum,
round brain case,
skull small for hominid,
long canines,
last low molar w/extra cusp,
SE Asia
Hominidae
Great apes and humans,
easiest to recognize,
Africa(Pan & Gorilla),
SE Asia (Pongo),
Homo
Post-orbital bar and comb-incisors
Strepsirhini
Post-orbital plate
Haplorhini
Elongated rostrum and brain case
Lemuridae
Flatter rostrums
Galagonidae/Loridae
6 cheek teeth
Cebidae
5 cheek teeth
Callitrichidae/Cercopithecidae
No angled 1st premolar
Callitrichidae
Angled 1st premolar on lower jaw
Cercopithecidae
Frugivores and brain size
Large brain and large home range
Folivores and brain size
Small brain and small home range
Temporal ridges/eyes directed forward
Loridae
Sagital crest well developed
Galagonidae
Pinnipeds
Odobenidae, Otariidae, Phocidae
Fissipeds
Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae
Odobenidae
Walrus,
homodont,
canines = tusks, Arctic
Otariidae
Sea lions,
homodont,
postorbital process large,
hind limbs under body,
small pinnae,
pelt uniform,
N. Am./S. Am./Asia/Austrailia
Phocidae
True seals,
Homodont,
absent postorbital process,
hind limbs point posterior,
pinnae absent,
pelt spotted/ringed,
worldwide
Canidae
Dogs,
Long rostrum,
Big carnassials w/crushing post-carnassials,
3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3,
N./S. America, Eurasia
Ursidae
Bears,
Long rostrum,
small orbits,
non-shearing carnassials,
molars flattened,
3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3,
N./S. America & Eurasia
Procyonidae
Racoons,
long rostrum,
premolars not reduced,
molars square,
bunodont 3/3, 1/1, 3/3, 1/2,
worldwide except Australia
Mustelidae
Weasels/badgers,
Short rostrum/long braincase,
barbel-shaped upper molar,
palate stops farther back
Mephitidae
Skunks,
short rostrum/long braincase,
barbel-shaped molar,
palate stops w/last molar,
Nearctic & Neotropical
Viverridae
Civets/Genets,
long braincase/short rostrum,
large premolars,
2molars wider than long,
3/3 1/1 3/4 2/2,
Africa/Asia/Europe
Herpestidae
Mongooses & Meerkats,
Africa & Asia,
very similar to viverrids
Hyaenidae
Hyenas,
large skull,
enlarged carnassials,
crushing molars,
2nd lower cheek tooth larger than last lower cheek tooth,
3/3 1/1 4/3 1/1,
Africa and India
Felidae
Cats,
Short rostrum,
large orbits,
carnassials large,
tooth number reduced,
tiny last upper molar,
lower cheek teeth in back largest,
3/3 1/1 3/2 1/1,
Worldwide ex. Australia
The larger the slicing pair of carnassials...
...the higher percentage of meat in diet
Aardwolf
Hyaenidae
African lion and Leopard
Felidae
sea otter
Enhydra lutris (Mustelidae)
Wolverine
Mustelidae
Genet
Viverridae
Mongoose
Herpestidae
Badger characteristics
large nuchal crest/ right angled upper molar
Who has Os penis (baculum)?
Primates, rodents, insectivores, carnivores, chiroptera
Homodonty of cheek teeth
Piscivorous
Otariidae, phosidae, mustelidae, odobenidae
Member of this family eat fish
Wide grinding flat molars
Herbivorous
Ursidae, procyonidae, mustelidae
Herbivorous families
Massively reduced cheek teeth
Eat soft-bodied insects
Hyaenidae
family that eats soft-boded insects
Wide flat molars for grinding
Omnivorous
Ursidae/procyonidae
families that are omnivorous
carnassial pair huge slicing, reduced cheek teeth
Carnivorous
felidae, viverridae, hyaenidae, canidae
Families that have truly carnivorous members
Ursidae skull
large w/large canine,
flat grinding molars
Ursus americanus skull
last molar widest in middle
Ursus arctos skull
last molar widest at anterior end
Procyonidae skull
cheek teeth flattened for grinding
Procyon lotor skull
palate extends posterior to cheektooth row
Bassariscus astutus skull
sheering teeth,
palate ends where cheek teeth end
Nasua nasua skull
blade-like canines
Felidae skull
short rostrum/large orbits/reduced cheek teeth #, SHEARING
Lynx rufus skull
3 post-canine cheekteeth
Puma concolr skull
larger size,
4 post-canine cheekteeth
Hyaenidae skull
massive premolar and molar
Viverridae skull
confused with mustelids/ringtails,
CONSTRICTED bullae
Otariidae skull
post-orbital process and HOMODONTY
Phocidae skull
No-postorbital process and HOMODONTY
Canidae skull
long/narrow rostrum with shearing cheekteeth and grinding
FOXES skull
postorbital process thin
w/ concave fossa,
Vulpes spp. skull
round braincase,
not temporal ridges
Urocyon cinereoargenteus skull
lyre-shaped temporal ridge,
notch in lower mandible
COYOTES/DOGS skull
Postorbital process thick and convex
Canis latrans skull
narrow rostrum and small size
Canis lupus skull
broader rostrum,
larger skull
Mustelidae skull
short rostrum,
long braincase,
last molar wider than long
Taxidae taxus skull
triangle braincase,
triangular last molar
Mustela frenata skull
small,
elongate braincase,
last molar dumbell
Lontra canadensis skull
flat skull profile,
jaw locked into cranium
Mephitidae skull
palate ends even with cheektooth row
Mephitis mephitis skull
round cranium,
nasals not shortened
Conepatus skull
nasals end above canine slanting to incisors,
3 cheekteeth
Spilogale skull
flat skull,
highest in rear
Leporidae skull
supraorbital shield
Sylvilagus skull
Interparietal bone
What genera have atricial/prococial young?
Lepus and Sylvilagus
Lepus (rabbit or hare?)
Rabbit
Sylvilagus (rabbit or hare?)
Hare
Ocotonidae
Pika - 5 cheek teeth,
no supraorbital shield
Round ears/no tail
High mtns - Rockies/Sierras of N.A.
Leporidae
Rabbits/Hares - 6 cheek teeth
supraorbital shield
long ears/small tail
2 N.A. genera - lepus and Sylvilagus
Lepus skull
interparietal fused to parietal
long legs/ears
young born precocial
Sylvilagus skull
Interparietal not fused to parietal
ears/legs shorter
young born atricial
Long paraoccipital process
Myocastoridae
incisor smooth, large skull
Erethizontidae
incisor grooved, small skull
Dipodidae
long bony tubes of tympanum
"fudgesickle" lophs on molars
Aplodontidae
skull large
post-orbital process small,
sciuromorphous
Castoridae
Postorbital process present/pointed
pi-shaped ectolophs
Sciuridae
Infraorbital foramen large
Auditory bullae inflated
Heteromyidae
Infraorbital foramen small
auditory bullae not inflated
tail short/small eyes
Geomyidae
Infraorbital foramen long vertical slit
Muridae (myomorphous)
Most diverse rodent family
Muridae
Muridae subfamilies
Murinae (old world)
Microtinae (voles, muskrats)
Cricetinae (New World mice/rats)
Upper molars triangles
ears and eyes small
tail short/well haired
Microtinae
Upper molars with cusps in 3 rows
tail naked or sparsely haired
Murinae
Upper molars with cusps in 2 rows
tail well haired and bicolored
Cricetinae
Largest rodent in AZ
semi-aquatic
feeds on inner bark of riparian trees
castor canadensis
Hair modified into sharp quills
Arborial/feeds on tree bark
Erethizon dorsatum
Fossorial
small eyes and ears
short tail
fur-lined external cheek pouches
desert to high elevation forests
Thomomys bottae
Mouse-sized
long tail/hindlimbs
jumping
White Mountains
Zapus hudsonius
Sides of head with dark stripe through eye
stripes on back
woodlands
Tamias dorsalis (faded grey stripes)
Tamias cinereicollis (more distinct stripes)
One whitish strip on side of body
sparse fur
tail held over back
deserts/desert grasslands
Amospermophilus leucrurus (white tail)
Amospermophilus harrisi (grey tail)
Back with stripes or spots
No black stripe through eye
Spermophilus lateralis (conifer woodlands)
Spermophilus variegatus (woodlands, grasslands, deserts, human areas)
White belly, red/brown sides
Spruce/fir forests
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)
Uniformly tannish,
short tail
Colonial burrower
Grasslands
Cynomys gunnisoni
White belly, grey above
bushy tail
large sciurid
Sciurus aberti (ponderosa pine)
Sciurus arizonensis (riparian areas)
Dipodidae skull
smaller grooved incisors
Geomyidae skull
Larger grooved incisors
Erethizontidae skull
Triangle zig-zag molars
Aplodontidae skull
popsickle teeth
Muridae skull
myomorphous
Heteromyidae skull
Hole in rostrum
Sciurognathus example
Castoridae
Hystricognathus example
Myocastoridae
Sciuromorphous example
Castoridae
Myomorphous example
Muridae
Hystricomrphous example
Myocastoridae
Dipodidae
Erethizontidae
Genera in Heteromyidae in AZ
Perognathus
Chaetodipus
Dipodomys
Dipodomys in AZ
ordii (5 toes)
merriami (4 toes)
spectabilis (banner-tail)
Chaetodipus in AZ
spines on rump
tail tuft
Perognathus in AZ
small, silky
tuft or none
Microtinae in AZ
Microtus montanus
Microtus longicaudus (long tail)
Clethrionomys gapperi (red back)
Cricetinae in AZ
Reithrodontomys (grooved incisor, smaller)
Onychomys (shorter tail, grey)
Peromyscus (bi-colored tail)
Neotoma (larger, shorter tail)
Sigmodon (puffy, larger)
Murinae in AZ
Rattus norvegicus
Mus musculus