56 terms

Biology II H Midterm

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prokaryotes, 3.5
The earliest discovered fossils are of __ dating back to ___ bya
spontaneous generation does not occur today, but possibly happened in early Earth conditions
The findings of Pasteur have established that
through mutations or changes in the expression of genes that regulate development
According to "evo-devo" thinking, an organisms's body form can be substancially changed
how genes are expressed during development
The main genetic difference between humans and chimps is
classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships
Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to
only within the domain Eukarya
In the three domain kingdomsystem, Eukaryotes are represented
to prevent the cell from lysing in hypotonic environment
Prokaryotic cell walls function
bacteria that causes typhoid fever
Salmonella typhii
symbiosis
A close association between organisms
lay eggs
Duck-billed platypus and other monotremes differ from other mammals in that they
teeth
Which part of the body is likely to be more diverse in mammal fossils
Madagascar
Natural populations of lemurs found in
Anthropoids
The simians are the higher primates: the Old World monkeys and apes, including humans, and the New World monkeys or platyrrhines. They have a larger brain compared to their body size
chimps
Known to make and use simple tools
differ by about 1%
Human DNA and chimp DNA
bipedalism
First distinctive hominid trait to appear in fossil record
of setae on their toes form molecular bonds with the surface
Geckos are able to walk up walls because
1. GMOs
2. Cloning
3. DNA Fingerprinting
4. Stem cells
4 topics of biotechnology
1. Parisitism (-,+)
2. Commensalism (o,+)
3. Mutualism (+,+)
3 types of symbiotic relationships
1. Cocci
2. Spirilla
3. Bacillus
3 main Bacterial shapes
A. Substrate
B. Active Site
C., F. Enzyme
D. Enzyme-substrate complex
E. Products
Label the parts of an enzyme
sugar, carb
-saccharide
protein
-peptide
sugar, carb
-ose
fat
lip-
sugar, carb
glyc-
e: sunlight, c: carbon dioxide
What are the energy and carbon sources for photoautotrophs
e: inorganic chemicals, c: carbon dioxide
What are the energy and carbon sources for chemoautotrophs
e: sunlight, c: organic compounds
What are the energy and carbon sources for photoheterotrophs
e: organic compounds, c: organic compounds
What are the energy and carbon sources for chemoheterotrophs
e: sunlight, c: carbon dioxide
What are the energy and carbon sources for plants
e: organic compounds, c: organic compounds
What are the energy and carbon sources for animals/us
amino acids
What are the monomers of proteins
monosaccharides
What are the monomers of carbohydrates
(nucleotide)'s polymer is nucleic acid
What is this a monomer of
(glycerol + 3 fatty acids)'s make the lipid polymer
What is this a monomer of
The last fatty acid (with the double bond) makes it Unsaturated. (the first two look saturated)
Is this a saturated or unsaturated fat
dehydration synthesis
What is this process called?
hydrolysis
What is this process called?
Carboxyl
What functional group is this?
Amino
What functional group is this?
Phosphate
What functional group is this?
Hydroxyl
What functional group is this?
Carbonyl
What functional group is this?
Methyl
What functional group is this?
1.Amino
2. Methyl
3. Carboxyl
Label functional groups:
Cloning (SCNT: somatic cell nuclear transfer)
Which of the 4 topics of biotechnology is showing to the right of the diagram?
phospholipid bilayer (glycerol + phosphorus + 2 fatty acids)
What is this a picture of?
1. Temperature extremes
2. Concentration extremes
3. pH extremes
What are 3 ways a protein/enzyme can be denatured?
allele
a variant form of a gene
genetic drift
is the change in the frequency of an allele in a population due to random sampling of organisms
natural selection
the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring
1. Natural selection
2. Mutation
3. Gene flow
4. Genetic drift
What are the 4 mechanisms of evolution?
mutation
a permanent often random alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene
gene flow/migration
the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another
in domain Bacteria and domain Archaea
In the three domain system, prokaryotes are represented
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