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429 terms

LIfespan

Ch 4, 5, 6, 8
STUDY
PLAY
cognitive theory
working model
6 months
infant begins to express anger
crying and contentment
first emotional expressions to emerge at birth
Proximal parenting
close physical contact with a child
distal parenting
involves engaging the child more intellectually
anus
According to Freud, the primary source of gratification during the second year of life
self-recognition
Pretending and using the words "I," "me," "mine," and "myself" - evidence child has developed self-recognition
trust versus mistrust
Erikson's first crisis of life
Separation anxiety
normal at age 1 but not after age 3
infant's distress when a caregiver leaves intensifies by age 2
usually subsides by age 3.
self-awareness
infant's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose actions are separate from those of other people
psychoanalytic
theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development
goodness of fit
temperamental adjustment that allows smooth infant-caregiver interaction
synchrony
mutually coordinated, rapid, smooth interaction between a caregiver and an infant
When a toddler begins to walk and talk, the social bond with the caregiver changes from synchrony to
attachment
Albert crawls after his father when his father leaves the room. In doing so, Albert is exhibiting:
proximity-seeking behavior
Although cultural differences exist, most infants worldwide develop special attachments to their caregivers. This discovery is attributed to:
Mary Ainsworth
insecure-resistant/ambivalent
attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks contact when reunited with his or her caregiver
highly stressed parents
predict insecure attachment
fathers encourage infants to explore
mothers tend to be more cautious.
family day care
nonrelative child care in a home
psychosocial development is determined by
genes, maturation, culture.
The case study of Jacob is an example of the importance of paying attention to deficits in a child's
psychosocial growth.
low turnover rate
High-quality day care during infancy
.A determining factor in a father's level of involvement with his children
his relationship with their mother.
One of the most influential factors that determine a child's type of attachment is the
responsiveness of the parents.
key aspects of the Strange Situation
exploration of toys
insecure-resistant/ambivalent
attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks contact when reunited with his or her caregiver
secure attachment
infant is comfortable and confident in the presence of his or her caregivers
the still-face technique
experimental practice in which adults stare at their baby and remain expressionless
Research indicates that toddlers with proximal mothers were more compliant
but less self-aware
When temperament is described as being "constitutionally based," this means that traits
originate with one's genes.
key concept of an ethnotheory
a culture's underlying values and practices are usually not apparent to the people of that culture
autonomy versus shame and doubt
Erikson's second crisis of life?
Freud
would trace a person's excessive eating, drinking, or talking to how that person's mother handled his or her urge to suck during infancy
psychoanalytic
theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development
synesthesia
relationship between brain maturation and the ability to express each emotion and sensation in an appropriate way
self-awareness
infant's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose actions are separate from those of other people
separation anxiety
infant's distress when his or her caregiver leaves
stranger wariness
When an infant is fearful of strangers
about 6 weeks of age
An infant's smile upon seeing a person's face normally emerges
When many ethnic groups live together in a nation with abundant food and adequate medical care, children of what descent are tallest?
African
"just-right" phenomenon
young children's insistence on routine
motor skills
Environmental hazards such as pollution interfere with the development
corpus callosum
allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain
prefrontal cortex
"executive" of the brain
limbic system
expression and regulation of emotions
Hippocampus
central processor of memory
egocentrism
Piagetian term literally means "self-centered"
focus on appearance
characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child ignoring all attributes that are not apparent
After noticing that her 4-year-old brother was having difficulty putting a jigsaw puzzle together, Rose helped him with the task by praising his successes and helping him to recognize progress. From Vygotsky's perspective, this as an example of:
guided participation
zone of proximal development.
Vygotsky's term for the skills that a person can experience only with assistance, not yet independently
social mediation
function of speech occurs during both formal instruction and casual conversation
Theory of mind
typically appears rather suddenly
fast-mapping
process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words
overregularization
tendency of a young child to apply rules of grammar when he or she should not
Child-centered programs recognize that children learn through play with other children. This is most consistent with the views of:
Vygotsky.
Programs vary in length, curriculum, and goals
complications in the evaluation of Head Start programs
experts prefer the term "injury control" to the term "accident prevention
use of the term "accident" suggests that no one is at fault and that certain events are inevitable.
child abuse or maltreatment is
usually perpetrated by the child's parents or immediate relatives.
example of tertiary prevention of child maltreatment
removing an abused child from the home
Hispanic
highest childhood obesity rate
"just-right" phenomenon.
When a young child insists that his or her potatoes be placed on a certain part of the dinner plate
Exposure to high levels of lead does not cause
reduced motor skills.
lateralization
specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain
egocentrism
3-year-old who gives his mother a toy car for HER birthday and expects that she will love it
static reasoning
characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child assuming that the world is unchanging, always in the state in which the child currently encounters it
Vygotsky emphasized
the ability to learn as a measure of intelligence
Scaffolding
Vygotsky term refers to temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and is aimed at helping him or her master a new skill
when teachers explain things
example of the social mediation function of speech
theory of mind
understanding that other people can have thoughts and ideas unlike one's own
fast-mapping
Jessica's husband works on car engines as a hobby. Jessica often fails to figure out exactly what a particular part is, but she gets the general idea of what it does and places it in an appropriate mental category.
Overregularization demonstrates a child's understanding of
grammar
Montessori schools emphasize
individual pride and accomplishment.
key finding from research on early-childhood education programs is
quality matters most.
fences surrounding the pool
makes pools safer
child abuse
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being
A goal of permanency planning in cases of substantiated child maltreatment
find a long-term living situation
emotional regulation
children who master this have learned when and how to express emotions.
confidence and independence.
Erikson noted that as self-esteem builds, children generally display
protective optimism
Naive Predictions. Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles or control their dreams.
Guilt
self-blame that people experience when they do something wrong.
intrinsic motivation
A musician who plays for the delight of making music
psychopathology
An illness or disorder of the mind
At night, Brooks, age 4, is afraid of the sound of the train whistle and of going to bed without a light on. His excessive fears are an expression of:
immature development of his prefrontal cortex.
externalizing problems
When a person expresses powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts
attacking other people
An example of an externalizing problem
being withdrawn
an example of an internalizing problem
Peers provide practice in
emotional regulation, empathy, social understanding
parallel play
Children play with similar toys, but not together.
Baumrind.
traced the effects of parenting on child development, and whose findings continue to be very influential
Authoritarian
parenting style in which parents are more likely to use physical punishment
3 to 5 hours
young children of every ethnic and economic group spend this many hours a day exposed to electronic media.
Empathy
true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another person
antisocial behavior
Johnny, age 6, suddenly makes an angry face at Alan and kicks him hard for no apparent reason.
relational aggression
type of aggression is characterized by insults or social rejection aimed at harming the victim's friendships
ultimate goal of discipline
teach the child the standards of behavior within his or her culture.
children who are physically punished
are more likely to become bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults.
By age 8
Children have a firm understanding of biological differences between males and females
emotional regulation
ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
initiative versus guilt
Erik Erikson's third developmental stage—the stage during which self-esteem emerges
pride
emotion that is the foundation for practice and mastery of new skills.
intrinsic motivation
A drive that comes from inside a person
In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who received an expected award for drawing
were less likely to draw
people in the United States, one of the most important goals for emotional regulation is
overcoming fear
Girls whose behavior problems got worse over the first years of primary school were more likely to engage in
reparative behavior than boys were
neurological and hormonal effects may make boys more vulnerable to
externalizing problems
girls are more vulnerable to
internalizing problems
ecological context
or physical setting, is one aspect of culture that shapes play
Solitary
type of play appears first in Parten's progression of social play
expressions of warmth
researcher Diana Baumrind found that parents differ in four important dimensions of rearing children. One of those dimensions is:
permissive
Parents who have low expectations for maturity and rarely discipline their children are characterized by Baumrind
25 %
of 3-year-olds have a television in their bedroom
A parent might ask a child, "How would you feel if someone did that to you?" to:
encourage empathy.
prosocial
Feelings and actions that are helpful and kind without a personal motive
Bullying
kind of aggression is unprovoked and involves repeated physical or verbal attacks
In relating discipline to a young child's developmental characteristics, it is important to remember that
children are actively forming the theory of mind and self-concepts necessary for empathy and prosocial behaviors.
Physical punishment increases both
the possibility of aggression and temporarily obedience.
sex differences
Biological differences between males and females
industry versus inferiority
Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development
200 children who were lifted out of poverty showed
lower impulsive aggression
parental conflict can lead to internalizing behavior when
child experiences self-blame
learn how to get along with peers.
one of the most important tasks of a middle-school child
they may spout curses, accents, and slang.
A characteristic of the culture of children
some children are well liked, others aren't, and those in both groups change over time.
social acceptance among children indicates
social cognition
ability to understand human interactions
Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is an
aggressive-rejected child.
bullying
Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person
peers, parents, and culture
Research has shown that children develop their own standards of right and wrong, guided by
Kohlberg
theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning
inferior.
According to Erikson, if 8-year-old Kristina does NOT solve her psychosocial conflict of stage four, she will come to view herself as: inferior.
middle childhood
Civic sense and virtue begins
latency
Freud referred to middle childhood
social comparison.
tendency to assess one's own abilities by measuring them against those of other people, especially peers
resilience
capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity
family function
way in which a family works to meet the needs of its members
nuclear
most common type of family structure for U.S. children aged 6-11
low income and low stability
two factors that significantly interfere with family function in every nation
dysfunctional
family that does not support all its members
children attempt to master many skills.
During Erikson's crisis of industry versus inferiority
have lower school achievement
Children in U.S. military families move often
Ten-year-old Julian's parents frequently yell and argue. He will more likely:
feel lonely if he blames himself for his parents' fights.
The difference in the psychosocial development of young children as compared to that of middle-school children is that:
young children's egocentrism makes them less affected by other children's acceptance or rejection of them.
gender stereotypes and gender segregation are strongly maintained.
interesting aspect of the culture of children
kind and cooperative
the most popular young children
Social cognition
ability to understand social interactions
withdrawn-rejected
child who is rejected by peers because of timid and anxious behavior
repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person
Characteristics of bullying
children are more likely to behave prosocially
in middle school than earlier
Kohlberg would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning:
with a punishment and obedience orientation
Marisol can't wait to begin her first karate class
Erikson's fourth stage, the crisis of industry versus inferiority
Civic sense is influenced most by the examples of:
parents.
During the latency stage,
Freud believed that children's emotional drives and psychosocial needs are quiet.
School-age children tend to be aware of their classmates' opinions, judgments, and accomplishments. This development enables school-age children to engage in
social comparison.
Resilience is
dynamic.
most important overall family function is to provide: .
love and encouragement.
nuclear family
A family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children younger than age 18
Hispanic fathers
if divorce occurs, who is LEAST likely to stay actively involved with their children
family-stress model
examines crucial questions about the effect of risk factors (poverty, divorce, job loss) on the family
age 2 through 6
children add almost 10 inches in height and gain about 15 pounds in weight.
Tooth decay
most common disease of young children in developed nations, affects more than one-third of all children under age 6 in the United States
just-right" phenomenon
pathological in adults but is normal in children under age 6. over 75 percent of the 3-year-olds (the peak age) evidenced some just-right tendency
Examples of "Just Right" 3 yr olds:
Preferred to have things done in a particular order or in a certain way
Had a strong preference to wear (or not wear) certain clothes
Prepared for bedtime by engaging in a special activity, routine, or ritual
Had strong preferences for certain foods
motor skills
developed by play
From ages 2 to 6, maturation of the prefrontal cortex has several notable benefits:
Sleep becomes more regular.
Emotions become more nuanced and responsive.
Temper tantrums subside.
perseveration
some children persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action, unable to quit.
Lateralization-
Literally, sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity.
A gradual increase in myelination
makes 5-year-olds much quicker than 3-year-olds, who themselves are quicker than toddlers.
myelination
primary reason for faster thinking
Maturation of the prefrontal cortex gradually enables children to focus attention and curb impulsiveness
Before such maturation, many young children jump from task to task; they cannot stay quiet
Piaget:
Preoperational Thought
Preoperational means "before (pre) logical operations (reasoning processes)."
The child's verbal ability permits symbolic thinking. Language frees the child from the limits of sensorimotor experience
Centration (Piaget)
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others.
Egocentrism (Piaget)
Piaget's term for young children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective
Focus on appearance (Piaget) -
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent.
Static reasoning (Piaget)
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing changes. Whatever is now has always been and always will be.
Irreversibility (Piaget)
A characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone. A thing cannot be restored to the way it was before a change occurred.
Conservation (Piaget)
The principle that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance changes.
Animism (Piaget)
belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive.
Vygotsky: Social Learning
Every aspect of children's cognitive development is embedded in the social context
Apprentice in thinking-
Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD)-
Vygotsky's term for the skills—cognitive as well as physical—that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently.
Scaffolding
Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
Private speech-
The internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud).
Social mediation-
Human interaction that expands and advances understanding, often through words that one person uses to explain something to another
Theory-theory
idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear.
Theory of mind-
person's theory of what other people might be thinking. children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are. seldom achieved before age 4.
sensitive period
best time to master vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
age 2
average child knows about 500 words
age 6
average child knows more than 10,000 words
naming explosion
a sudden increase in an infant's vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of age
Fast-mapping
speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning
Basic Grammar
grammar of a language includes the structures, techniques, and rules that communicate meaning
Overregularization
application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, making the language seem more "regular" than it actually is.
Reggio Emilia approach-
famous program of early-childhood education that originated in the town of Reggio Emilia, Italy; it encourages each child's creativity in a carefully designed setting.
Montessori schools
emphasize individual pride and accomplishment, presenting literacy-related tasks (such as outlining letters and looking at books).
Child-Centered Programs
Stress children's natural inclination to learn through play
Encourage self-paced exploration and artistic expression.
Show the influence of Vygotsky, who thought that children learn through play with other children and through cultural practices that structure life.
Teacher-Directed Programs
Stress academic subjects taught by a teacher to entire class.
Children learn letters, numbers, shapes, & colors
Learn how to listen to the teacher and sit quietly.
Make a clear distinction between work & play.
Much less expensive
Project Head Start-
most widespread early-childhood education program in the United States, At first, the program was thought to be highly successful at raising children's intelligence; ten years later, early gains were said to fade.
Accidents
leading cause of death worldwide for people under age 40
Among 2- to 6-year-olds
four times more children die in accidents than die of cancer
Injury control/harm reduction-
Practices that are aimed anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities.
Primary prevention-
Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse.
Secondary prevention-
Actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian or installing traffic lights at dangerous intersections.
Tertiary prevention-
Actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event (such as illness, injury, or abuse) occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability.
Child maltreatment
Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age.
Child abuse
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being.
Child neglect
Failure to meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs.
Consequences of Maltreatment
maltreated children consider other people to be hostile and exploitative. That belief makes them fearful, aggressive, and lonely.
Primary prevention
includes any measure that reduces financial stress, family isolation, and unwanted parenthood.
Secondary prevention
home visits by nurses, high-quality day care, and preventive social work—all designed to help high-risk families.
Tertiary prevention
reduces harm when maltreatment has already occurred. Requires permanency planning, an effort to find a long-term solution to the problem.
Foster care-
legal, publicly supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents' custody and entrusted to another adult or family, which is reimbursed for expenses incurred in meeting the child's needs.
Kinship care-
A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grand -parent, becomes the approved caregiver.
Emotional Regulation
ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
Initiative versus guilt
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
Self-esteem:
person's evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness) or in general.
Self-concept:
person's understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits (e.g. gender, size).
Protective Optimism:
Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles, remember long lists of words, and control their dreams.
Helps them try new things
Guilt:
Self-blame that people experience when they do something wrong
Shame:
People's feeling that others blame them, disapprove of them, or are disappointed in them
Intrinsic motivation:
drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person (e.g. the need to feel smart or competent).
Extrinsic motivation
drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside (e.g. by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem).
Goals for emotional regulation that seem to be important in certain cultures:
Overcome fear (United States)
Modify anger (Puerto Rico)
Temper pride (China)
Control aggression (Japan)
Be patient and cooperative (Native American Communities)
psychopathology
Lack of emotional regulation may be an early sign of
Externalizing problems
Involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things
Intenalizing problems
Involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless
externalizing
Boys tend to be aggressive
internalizing
Girls tend to be anxious
Psychopathology is not typical
Children of both sexes usually learn to regulate their emotions as their brains mature and their parents nurture them
Play
most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake
Archeologists find toys that are many thousands of years old
Anthropologists report play in every part of the world
Form of play changes with age and culture
Increasingly complex social play is due to brain maturation coupled with many hours of social play
Children must learn how to make, and keep, friends
Peers:
People of about the same age and social status
Provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding
Children usually prefer to play with each other rather than with their parents
Physical setting of a culture shapes
play
Solitary play:
A child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby
Onlooker play
A child watches other children play.
Parallel play:
Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together.
Associative play:
Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but their play is not yet mutual and reciprocal.
Cooperative play:
Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns.
Rough-and-tumble play
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
Expressions and gestures (e.g. play face) signifying that the child is "just pretending"
Sociodramatic play:
Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
Sociodramatic play enables children to:
Explore and rehearse the social roles enacted around them
Test their ability to explain and to convince playmates of their ideas
Practice regulating their emotions by pretending to be afraid, angry, brave, and so on
Develop a self-concept in a nonthreatening context
Diana Baumrind (1967, 1971). Parents differ on four important dimensions:
1. Expressions of warmth: From very affectionate to cold and critical
2. Strategies for discipline: Parents vary in whether and how they explain, criticize, persuade, ignore, and punish.
3. Communication: Some parents listen patiently to their children; others demand silence.
4. Expectations for maturity: Parents vary in the standards they set for their children regarding responsibility and self-control.
Authoritarian parenting (Baumrind)
High behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication
Permissive parenting (Baumrind)
High nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
Authoritative parenting (Baumrind):
Parents set limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children
Neglectful/uninvolved parenting (Baumrind):
Parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives
Children of authoritarian parents tend to
become conscientious, obedient, and quiet but not especially happy
feel guilty or depressed and blame themselves when things don't go well
rebel as adolescents and leave home before age 20
Children of permissive parents tend to:
be unhappy and lack self-control, especially in peer relationships
suffer from inadequate emotional regulation
be immature and lack friendships (main reason for their unhappiness)
continue to live at home, still dependent, in early adulthood
Children of authoritative parents tend to:
be successful, articulate, happy with themselves, and generous with others
Be well-liked by teachers and peers, especially in societies in which individual initiative is valued
Critique of Baumrind's Model
Her original sample had little economic, ethnic, or cultural diversity
The Significance of Content
Violence on TV is often depicted as morally acceptable.
Children who watch televised violence become more violent themselves.
Racial and gender stereotypes are still evident in children's programs
Empathy:
ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
Antipathy:
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
Prosocial behavior:
Actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them.
Increases from age 3 to 6
Antisocial behavior:
Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
Declines beginning at age 2
Instrumental aggression:
Hurtful behavior that is intended to get something that another person has and to keep it.
Reactive aggression:
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
Relational aggression:
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
Bullying aggression:
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
Physical punishment increases obedience temporarily
but increases the possibility of later aggression.
Many children who are spanked do not become violent adults;
other factors (e.g. poverty, temperament) are stronger influences.
Psychological control:
disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.
Time-out:
disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time.
Age 2:
Children know whether they are boys or girls and apply gender labels consistently
Age 4
Children are convinced that certain toys (such as dolls or trucks) are appropriate for one gender but not the other
Sex differences:
Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body shape
Gender differences:
Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females.
Age 5
Increased awareness of sex and gender differences
Age 8:
Belief that their biological sex is a permanent trait
from age 2 to age 8
Increase of awareness of sex differences, preferences for same-sex playmates and stereotypical gender activities
Phallic stage
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
Oedipus complex
The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mothers' exclusive love
Superego:
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
Electra complex:
The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their fathers' exclusive love.
Identification:
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.
Behaviorism
Gender differences are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment

"Gender-appropriate" is rewarded more frequently than "gender-inappropriate" behavior
Social learning theory:
Children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe
Gender schema:
A child's cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences.

Young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female, and then they think and behave accordingly.
Systems Theory
Offers the most complex and comprehensive explanations for gender differences.
Genes and culture, parents and peers, ideas and customs all interact, affecting each child.
Androgyny:
A balance within one person of traditionally masculine and feminine psychological characteristics.
Industry and Inferiority
Industrious children at this age actively master culturally valued skills and abilities (e.g. reading, math, collecting, categorizing, counting)

Children work on regulating their temper
Effortful control
The ability to regulate one's emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination.
Industry versus inferiority
fourth of Erikson's eight psychosocial crises
Children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
Latency:
Emotional drives are quiet and unconscious sexual conflicts are submerged.
Children acquire cognitive skills and assimilate cultural values by expanding their world to include teachers, neighbors, peers, club leaders, and coaches.
Sexual energy is channeled into social concerns.
Social comparison:
Tendency to assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers.
Social comparison
Helps children value the abilities they have and abandon the imaginary, rosy self-evaluation of preschoolers.
Confidence plummets and inhibition rises from about 18 months of age to 9 years
Materialism rises
Resilience:
The capacity to adapt well despite significant adversity and to overcome serious stress.
Resilience is dynamic
a person may be resilient at some periods but not at others
Resilience is a positive adaptation to stress
if rejection by a parent leads a child to establish a closer relationship with another adult, that child is resilient.
Adversity must be significant
- Resilient children overcome conditions that overwhelm many of their peers.
Stress Hurricane Katrina
Most Stress b/c of Move, transfer to New School and Damaged Homes
A network of supportive relatives is a better buffer
than having only one close parent
Grandparents, teachers, unrelated adults, peers, and pets
can lower stress.
Community institutions (e.g. churches, libraries)
can also be crucial sources of social support.
Genes affect half or more
of the variance for almost every trait
Influence of shared environment (e.g., children raised by the same parents in the same home)
shrinks with age
Effect of nonshared environment (e.g., friends or schools)
increases with age
Children raised in the same households by the same parents
do not necessarily share the same home environment.
Changes in the family
affect every family member differently (e.g. depending on age and/or gender)
Most parents respond to each of their children
differently.
Family function
The way a family works to meet the needs of its members.
Children need families to:
provide basic material necessities
encourage learning
help them develop self-respect
nurture friendships
foster harmony and stability
Family structure:
The legal and genetic relationships among relatives living in the same home; includes nuclear family, extended family, stepfamily, and so on.
Signs of Maltreatment ages 2-10
-injuries that do not fit an accidental explanation
-repeated injuries, broken bones not properly tended
-expressions of fear when seeing caregiver
-fantasy play with dominant themes of violence
-physical complaints
-frequent absences from school
-no close friendships
Nuclear family
named after the nucleus (tightly connected particles of the atom), consists of a husband and wife and their biological offspring under 18. (this is about 1/2 of all families with children)

Tend to be wealthier, better educated, healthier, more flexible, and less hostile
Biological parents tend to be very dedicated to their offspring
Similar advantages occur for children who are adopted
Stepparent family (9%)
Divorced fathers are likely to remarry. Usually his children from a previous marriage do not live with him, but if they do, they are in a stepparent family. Divorced mothers less likely to remarry, but when they do, the children often live with her and their stepfather.
Blended family
stepparent family that includes children both to several families, such as biological children from the spouses' previous marriages and the biological children of the new couple. family type is difficult for school-age children.
Polygamous family (0% in U.S.)
In some nations, one man has several wives, each bearing his children.
SIngle mother, never married (10%)
About 1/3 of all newborns born to unmarried mothers, but most of these mothers intend to marry someday. Many of them marry their baby's father or someone else. By school age, their children are often in two-parent families
SIngle mother-divorced, separated, or widowed (13%)
Single, formerly married mothers
Single father, divorced or never married (5%)
1 in 5 divorced or unmarried fathers has custody of the children. This is rapidly increasing in the U.S. especially among divorced fathers who were actively involved in child rearing when they were married.
Extended family
children that live with a grandparent or other relatives, as well as with one or both of their parents.
Grandparents alone
For some school-age children, one of two "parents" are their grandparents. This family type is increasing, especially in Africa where AIDS is killing many parents
Homosexual family
Custodial parent has homosexual partner or homosexual couple adopts children or a lesbian has a child. Varying laws and norms determine whether these are one-or-two parent families
Foster family
usually considered temporary and one-or-two parent families depending on the structure of the foster families
Household:
Composed of people who live together in the same home
Two or more people who are related to one another (most common)
One person living alone (26%)
Nonrelatives living together (6%)
Family household:
Includes a least one parent and at least one child under age 18
Accounts for about two-thirds of the households in the United States
Families Headed by Gay Men or Lesbian Women
Make up less than 1% of all U.S. households
Many have children (from previous marriage, assisted reproduction or adoption)
Strengths and weaknesses are similar to those of the heterosexual family
Children of homosexual parents have the same romantic impulses, school achievements, and psychosocial difficulties as children of heterosexual couples
The quality of children's relationships with their parents is more important than the parents' sexual interactions, the family structure, or the household status
Stepparent must find a role that is not as intimate as that of the biological parents but that allows some involvement with the children.
Easier if the children are young (under age 3)
Difficult if the children are teenagers
Single-parent family
Children in single-mother families fare worse in school and in adult life than most other children.
Single-mother households are often low-income and unstable, move more often and add new adults more often.
Single-fathers have a slightly higher income and tend to be slightly older than single mothers.
Dysfunctional family:
A family that does not support all its members
Three factors increase the likelihood of dysfunction:
Low Income
Instability
Low Harmony
Family stress model:
the crucial question to ask about any risk factor (e.g. poverty, divorce, job loss, eviction) is whether or not it increases the stress on a family
family-stress model contends
that the adults' stressful reaction to poverty is crucial in determining the effect on the children.
Children in middle childhood prefer continuity
Upsetting changes include moving to a new home, being sent to a new school, and changes in the family structure
Adults might not realize that these transitions affect schoolchildren
Children feel a need for harmony
Parents who habitually fight are more likely to divorce, move, and otherwise disrupt the child's life.
Remarriage of divorced parents is often difficult for children due to jealousy, stress, and conflict.
Children frequently suffer if parents physically or verbally abuse each other.
Culture of children:
The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society.
Fashion
Language
Peer culture
School-age children value personal friendship more than
peer acceptance
Gender differences
Girls talk more and share secrets.
Boys play more active games.
Friendships lead to
psychosocial growth and provide a buffer against psychopathology.
Older children:
Demand more of their friends
Change friends less often
Become more upset when a friendship ends
Find it harder to make new friends
Seek friends who share their interests and values
Social cognition:
ability to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of human behavior.
Social cognition:
Begins in infancy and continues to develop in early childhood
Social cognition is well established by middle childhood
Children with impaired social cognition are likely to be rejected
Aggressive-rejected children:
Children who are disliked by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior
Withdrawn-rejected children
Children who are disliked by peers because of their timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior
Bullying:
Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person.
Bully-victim:
Someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well
Also called a provocative victim because he or she does things that elicit bullying, such as stealing a bully's pencil
Successful Efforts to Eliminate Bullying
The whole school must be involved, not just the identified bullies.
Intervention is more effective in the earlier grades.
Evaluation of results is critical.
Social smile
(6 weeks): Evoked by viewing human faces
Laughter
(3 to 4 months): Often associated with curiosity
Anger
First expressions at around 6 month
Healthy response to frustration
Sadness
Indicates withdrawal and is accompanied by increased production of cortisol
Stressful experience for infants
Fear:
Emerges at about 9 months in response to people, things, or situations
Stranger wariness:
Infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close
Separation anxiety:
Tears, dismay, or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves.
If it remains strong after age 3, it may be considered an emotional disorder.
Toddlers' Emotions
Anger and fear become less frequent and more focused
Laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating
Toddlers' New emotions:
Pride
Shame
Embarrassment
Guilt
-Require an awareness of other people
-Emerge from family interactions, influenced by the culture
First 4 months & self-awareness:
Infants have no sense of self and may see themselves as part of their mothers. (no self-awareness)
5 months & self-awareness:
Infants begin to develop an awareness of themselves as separate from their mothers.
15-18 months & self awareness:
Emergence of the Me-self
Sense of self as the "object of one's knowledge"
Mirror Recognition
Babies looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses, not until they were 15- to 24-month-olds: did they show self-awareness by touching their own noses with curiosity.
Synesthesia
The stimulation of one sensory stimulus to the brain (sound, sight, touch, taste, or smell) by another.
Common in infants because boundaries between sensory parts of the cortex are less distinct.
Cross-modal perception
Infant associates textures with vision, sounds with smells, own body with the bodies of others
Basis for early social understanding
Synesthesia of emotions
Infant's cry can be triggered by pain, fear, tiredness, or excitement; laughter can turn to tears.
Infants' emotions are difficult to predict because of the way their brains are activated.
Particular people begin to arouse specific emotions
Toddlers get angry when a teasing older sibling approaches them or react with fear when entering the doctor's office.
Memory triggers specific emotions based on previous experiences.
Abuse (form of chronic stress)
Potential long-term effects on a child's emotional development
High levels of stress hormones indicative of emotional impairment
Excessive stress in infants must be prevented
Stress can be avoided by:
providing new mothers with help and emotional support
involving new fathers in the care of the infant
strengthening the relationship between mother and father
Oral stage (first year): (Freud)
The mouth is the young infant's primary source of gratification
Anal stage (second year): (Freud)
Infant's main pleasure comes from the anus (e.g. sensual pleasure of bowel movements and the psychological pleasure of controlling them)
Oral fixation: (Freud)
If a mother frustrates her infant's urge to suck, the child may become an adult who is stuck (fixated) at the oral stage (e.g. eats, drinks, chews, bites, or talks excessively)
Anal personality: (Freud)
Overly strict or premature toilet training may result in an adult with an unusually strong need for control, regularity and cleanliness
ERIKSON: TRUST AND AUTONOMY (1)
Trust versus Mistrust
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs are met
or
Toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodies
Early problems can create an adult who is suspicious and pessimistic (mistrusting) or who is easily shamed (insufficient autonomy)
BEHAVIORISM
Parents mold an infant's emotions and personality through reinforcement and punishment
Social learning
The acquisition of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others
Demonstrated in the classic Bobo Doll study by Albert Bandura
Working model (Cognitive Theory)
Set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences
A person might assume that other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidence that this working model of human behavior is erroneous.
The child's interpretation of early experiences is more important than the experiences themselves.
New working models can be developed based on new experiences or reinterpretation of previous experiences.
ETHNOTHEORY
theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture but is not usually apparent to the people within the culture.
Example:
Culture's ethnotheory includes the belief in reincarnation
Children are not expected to show respect for adults, but adults must show respect for their reborn ancestors indulgent child-rearing
Perceived as extremely lenient by Western cultures
SYSTEMS THEORY
Epigenetic approach to development, using all five characteristics of the life-span perspective (multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multi disciplinary, and plastic)
Systems theory is especially insightful in interpreting temperament.
Temperament
Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation
Temperament is epigenetic, originating in the genes but affected by child-rearing practices
The Big Five (acronym OCEAN)
the five basic clusters of personality traits that remain quite stable throughout life:
Openness:
Conscientiousness:
Extroversion:
Agreeableness:
Neuroticism:
Longitudinal study of infant temperament (Fox et al., 2001): Grouped 4-month-olds into three distinct types based on responses to fearful stimulation
Positive (exuberant)
Negative
Inhibited (fearful)

Less than half altered their responses as they grew older
Fearful infants were most likely to change
Exuberant infants were least likely to change
Maturation and child rearing has effect on inborn temperament
Goodness of Fit
A similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community`
With a good fit
parents of difficult babies build a close relationship
parents of exuberant, curious infants learn to protect them from harm
parents of slow-to-warm-up toddlers give them time to adjust
Synchrony in the first few months
Becomes more frequent and more elaborate
Helps infants learn to read others' emotions and to develop the skills of social interaction
Synchrony usually begins with parents imitating infants
Attachment
a lasting emotional bond that one person has with another.
Attachments begin to form in early infancy and influence a person's close relationships throughout life
Preattachment (birth-6 weeks)
newborns signal, via crying & body movements that they need others. when ppl respond positively, the newborn is comforted and learns to seek more interaction. newborns are also primed by brain patterns to recognize familiar voices and faces.
Attachment in the making (6 wks - 8 mos)
infants respond preferntially to famimilar ppl by smiling, laughing, babbling. Caregivers' voices, touch, expresisons and gestures are comforting, often over rising the impulse to cry. Trust (Erikson) develops.
Classic secure attachment (8 mos-2 yrs)
Infants greet primary caregiver, show separation anxiety, play happily when caregiver is present. Infant & caregiver seek to be close to each other (proximity) & frequently look at each other (contact). Physical touch is frequent.
Attachment as launching pad (2-6 yrs)
Young children seek caregivers' praise and reassurance as their social world expands. Interactive conversations & games (hide-n-seek, object play, reading, pretending). Caregivers expected to comfort & entertain.
Mutual attachment (6-12 yrs.)
Children seek to make caregivers proud by learning what adults want them to learn. In concrete operational thought (Piaget), specific accomplishments are valued by adults and children.
New attachment figures (12-18 yrs)
Teens explore & make friendships on their own, using their working models of earlier attachments as a base. With more advanced, formal operational thinking (Piaget), physical contact is less important; shared ideals and goals are more influential.
Attachment revisited (18 yrs on)
Adults develop relationships with others, esp romantic partners & parent-child relationships, influenced by earlier attachment patterns. Earlier care givers continue to be supportive, and adults continue to seek their praise, but they are no longer the prime object of attachment. Past insecure attachments can be repaired, although this does not always happen.
Secure attachment:
An infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.
-In play room, child plays happily-mother leaves, child pauses, is not as happy, mother returns, child welcomes her, returns to play
Insecure-avoidant attachment:
An infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return
-In play room, child plays happily - mother leaves, child continues playing, mother returns, child ignores her.
Insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment:
An infant's anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion.
-n play room, child clings, is preoccupied with mother-mother leaves, child is unhappy, may stop playing, mother returns, child is angry, may cry, hit mother, cling.
Disorganized attachment:
A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return.
-In play room, child is cautious - mother leaves, child may stare or yell, looks scared, confused, mother returns, child acts oddly, may freeze, scream, hit self, throw things
Children in low-income families are especially vulnerable to obesity
their cultures still guard against undernutrition and their parents may rely on fast foods.
Stranger wariness
expressed when an infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close, too quickly (Santa Claus is scary until children are 3 years old)
Separation anxiety
expressed in tears, dismay, or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves.
social smile
smile evoked by a human face, evident in infants about 6 weeks after birth
Fear
most infants fear strangers, anything unexpected, from the flush of a toilet to pop of of a jack-in-the-box, closing of elevator doors, to tail wagging of a dog approaching. (9-14 months)
12 months
anger and fear
self awareness
expressions of pride, shame, embarrassment and guilt
Extreme stress
impairs brain and emotional growth
Newborns express distress and contentment
and soon infants display curiosity and joy, with social smiles and laughter
Psychoanalytic theory connects biosocial and
psychosocial development
trust vs mistrust
Erikson's 1st stage. Infants learn trust if basic needs for food, comfort and attention are met
autonomy vs shame and doubt
Erikson's 2nd stage. Toddlers succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodies.
working model
in cognitive theory, set of assumptions an individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. A person might assume other people are trustworthy and be surprised by evidence that this working model of human behavior is erroneous.
Psychoanalytic theory stresses
the mother's responses to the infant's needs for food and elimination (Freud)
Psychoanalytic theory stresses
the mother's responses to the infant's needs for security and independence (Erikson)
Cognitive theory emphasizes mental frameworks that affect emotions and actions
both the working models held by individuals and the ethotheories developed by societies
Systems theories
emphasizes the interactions of genes, child rearing practices and culture, as in the development of temperamental traits and in the proximal or distal approach to parenting
goodness of fit
tempermental adjustment that allows smooth infant-caregiver interaction
parents of difficult babies build a close relationship
parents of exuberant, curious infants learn to protect them from harm
parents of slow-to-warm up toddlers give them time to adjust
attachment
According to Ainsworth "an affectional tie" that an infant forms with a caregiver, lasting emotional one that one person has with another
-When people are attached they respond to each other through proximity-seeking behaviors and contact -maintaining behvaiors
social referencing
seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions. The other person becomes a social reference.
center day care
child care that occurs in a place, especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for the children. Children grouped by age, center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in child development.
High quality day care has 5 essential characteristics:
1. Adequate attention to each infant
2. Encouragement of language and sensorimotor development
3. Attention to health and safety
4. Well-trained and professional caregivers
5. Warm and responsive caregivers
Social referencing
teaches infants whether new things are fearsome or fun
Quality of day care
no single type of day care is proven best
quality is pivotal for development
Indifferent
Type a-insecure/avoidant
Overly dependent
Type c-insecure-resistant/ambivalent
Disorganized attachment
Type D-most worrisome form/odd or inconsistent response
Pollution
affects early development, lead and other toxins harmful to the brain
amygdala
tiny brain structure that registers emotions, fear and anxiety
hippocampus
brain structure, central processor of memory, esp for locations
hypothalamus
produces hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
substantiated maltreatment
harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated and verified
permanency planning
an effort by child-welfare authorities to find a long-term living solution that will provide stability and support for a maltreated child. Goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school, that can be harmful to the child
Three levels of prevention
primary, secondary, tertiary
Emotional regulation
influenced by brain maturation and social guidance, gradually increases from age 2 to 6
Psychopathology may be evident in either
internalizing or externalizing extreme in the expression of emotions
Initiative vs. guilt
Erikson's early childhood stage, children are self confident and motivated to try new activities
Authoritative parenting (Diane Baumrind)
warm with guidance, is best
Industry vs. Inferiority
Allows children to master new skills & absorb their culture's values, but can generate self doubt
School age children develop a more realistic self concept than
younger children
culture of children
the particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society
Families 5 crucial functions for school-age children:
1. Furnish basic necessities
2. Encourage learning
3. Instill self-respect
4. Nurture friendships
5. Offer a peaceful refuge
The nuclear, two parent family, most common and benefits are:
more income, stability and adult attention
Low income, family conflict and major life transitions interfere with family functions,
no matter what the family structure is.
Compared with 6-year-olds, when it comes to 10-year-olds, do the following:
demand more of their friends, change friends less often, become upset when a friendship ends, find it harder to make new friends, seek friends who share their interests and values.