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Ch 4, 5, 6, 8

cognitive theory

working model

6 months

infant begins to express anger

crying and contentment

first emotional expressions to emerge at birth

Proximal parenting

close physical contact with a child

distal parenting

involves engaging the child more intellectually


According to Freud, the primary source of gratification during the second year of life


Pretending and using the words "I," "me," "mine," and "myself" - evidence child has developed self-recognition

trust versus mistrust

Erikson's first crisis of life

Separation anxiety

normal at age 1 but not after age 3
infant's distress when a caregiver leaves intensifies by age 2
usually subsides by age 3.


infant's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose actions are separate from those of other people


theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development

goodness of fit

temperamental adjustment that allows smooth infant-caregiver interaction


mutually coordinated, rapid, smooth interaction between a caregiver and an infant

When a toddler begins to walk and talk, the social bond with the caregiver changes from synchrony to


Albert crawls after his father when his father leaves the room. In doing so, Albert is exhibiting:

proximity-seeking behavior

Although cultural differences exist, most infants worldwide develop special attachments to their caregivers. This discovery is attributed to:

Mary Ainsworth


attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks contact when reunited with his or her caregiver

highly stressed parents

predict insecure attachment

fathers encourage infants to explore

mothers tend to be more cautious.

family day care

nonrelative child care in a home

psychosocial development is determined by

genes, maturation, culture.

The case study of Jacob is an example of the importance of paying attention to deficits in a child's

psychosocial growth.

low turnover rate

High-quality day care during infancy

.A determining factor in a father's level of involvement with his children

his relationship with their mother.

One of the most influential factors that determine a child's type of attachment is the

responsiveness of the parents.

key aspects of the Strange Situation

exploration of toys


attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks contact when reunited with his or her caregiver

secure attachment

infant is comfortable and confident in the presence of his or her caregivers

the still-face technique

experimental practice in which adults stare at their baby and remain expressionless

Research indicates that toddlers with proximal mothers were more compliant

but less self-aware

When temperament is described as being "constitutionally based," this means that traits

originate with one's genes.

key concept of an ethnotheory

a culture's underlying values and practices are usually not apparent to the people of that culture

autonomy versus shame and doubt

Erikson's second crisis of life?


would trace a person's excessive eating, drinking, or talking to how that person's mother handled his or her urge to suck during infancy


theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development


relationship between brain maturation and the ability to express each emotion and sensation in an appropriate way


infant's realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose actions are separate from those of other people

separation anxiety

infant's distress when his or her caregiver leaves

stranger wariness

When an infant is fearful of strangers

about 6 weeks of age

An infant's smile upon seeing a person's face normally emerges

When many ethnic groups live together in a nation with abundant food and adequate medical care, children of what descent are tallest?


"just-right" phenomenon

young children's insistence on routine

motor skills

Environmental hazards such as pollution interfere with the development

corpus callosum

allows communication between the two hemispheres of the brain

prefrontal cortex

"executive" of the brain

limbic system

expression and regulation of emotions


central processor of memory


Piagetian term literally means "self-centered"

focus on appearance

characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child ignoring all attributes that are not apparent

After noticing that her 4-year-old brother was having difficulty putting a jigsaw puzzle together, Rose helped him with the task by praising his successes and helping him to recognize progress. From Vygotsky's perspective, this as an example of:

guided participation

zone of proximal development.

Vygotsky's term for the skills that a person can experience only with assistance, not yet independently

social mediation

function of speech occurs during both formal instruction and casual conversation

Theory of mind

typically appears rather suddenly


process by which children develop an interconnected set of categories for words


tendency of a young child to apply rules of grammar when he or she should not

Child-centered programs recognize that children learn through play with other children. This is most consistent with the views of:


Programs vary in length, curriculum, and goals

complications in the evaluation of Head Start programs

experts prefer the term "injury control" to the term "accident prevention

use of the term "accident" suggests that no one is at fault and that certain events are inevitable.

child abuse or maltreatment is

usually perpetrated by the child's parents or immediate relatives.

example of tertiary prevention of child maltreatment

removing an abused child from the home


highest childhood obesity rate

"just-right" phenomenon.

When a young child insists that his or her potatoes be placed on a certain part of the dinner plate

Exposure to high levels of lead does not cause

reduced motor skills.


specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain


3-year-old who gives his mother a toy car for HER birthday and expects that she will love it

static reasoning

characteristic of preoperational thought involves a child assuming that the world is unchanging, always in the state in which the child currently encounters it

Vygotsky emphasized

the ability to learn as a measure of intelligence


Vygotsky term refers to temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and is aimed at helping him or her master a new skill

when teachers explain things

example of the social mediation function of speech

theory of mind

understanding that other people can have thoughts and ideas unlike one's own


Jessica's husband works on car engines as a hobby. Jessica often fails to figure out exactly what a particular part is, but she gets the general idea of what it does and places it in an appropriate mental category.

Overregularization demonstrates a child's understanding of


Montessori schools emphasize

individual pride and accomplishment.

key finding from research on early-childhood education programs is

quality matters most.

fences surrounding the pool

makes pools safer

child abuse

Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being

A goal of permanency planning in cases of substantiated child maltreatment

find a long-term living situation

emotional regulation

children who master this have learned when and how to express emotions.

confidence and independence.

Erikson noted that as self-esteem builds, children generally display

protective optimism

Naive Predictions. Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles or control their dreams.


self-blame that people experience when they do something wrong.

intrinsic motivation

A musician who plays for the delight of making music


An illness or disorder of the mind

At night, Brooks, age 4, is afraid of the sound of the train whistle and of going to bed without a light on. His excessive fears are an expression of:

immature development of his prefrontal cortex.

externalizing problems

When a person expresses powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts

attacking other people

An example of an externalizing problem

being withdrawn

an example of an internalizing problem

Peers provide practice in

emotional regulation, empathy, social understanding

parallel play

Children play with similar toys, but not together.


traced the effects of parenting on child development, and whose findings continue to be very influential


parenting style in which parents are more likely to use physical punishment

3 to 5 hours

young children of every ethnic and economic group spend this many hours a day exposed to electronic media.


true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another person

antisocial behavior

Johnny, age 6, suddenly makes an angry face at Alan and kicks him hard for no apparent reason.

relational aggression

type of aggression is characterized by insults or social rejection aimed at harming the victim's friendships

ultimate goal of discipline

teach the child the standards of behavior within his or her culture.

children who are physically punished

are more likely to become bullies, delinquents, and then abusive adults.

By age 8

Children have a firm understanding of biological differences between males and females

emotional regulation

ability to control when and how emotions are expressed

initiative versus guilt

Erik Erikson's third developmental stage—the stage during which self-esteem emerges


emotion that is the foundation for practice and mastery of new skills.

intrinsic motivation

A drive that comes from inside a person

In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who received an expected award for drawing

were less likely to draw

people in the United States, one of the most important goals for emotional regulation is

overcoming fear

Girls whose behavior problems got worse over the first years of primary school were more likely to engage in

reparative behavior than boys were

neurological and hormonal effects may make boys more vulnerable to

externalizing problems

girls are more vulnerable to

internalizing problems

ecological context

or physical setting, is one aspect of culture that shapes play


type of play appears first in Parten's progression of social play

expressions of warmth

researcher Diana Baumrind found that parents differ in four important dimensions of rearing children. One of those dimensions is:


Parents who have low expectations for maturity and rarely discipline their children are characterized by Baumrind

25 %

of 3-year-olds have a television in their bedroom

A parent might ask a child, "How would you feel if someone did that to you?" to:

encourage empathy.


Feelings and actions that are helpful and kind without a personal motive


kind of aggression is unprovoked and involves repeated physical or verbal attacks

In relating discipline to a young child's developmental characteristics, it is important to remember that

children are actively forming the theory of mind and self-concepts necessary for empathy and prosocial behaviors.

Physical punishment increases both

the possibility of aggression and temporarily obedience.

sex differences

Biological differences between males and females

industry versus inferiority

Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development

200 children who were lifted out of poverty showed

lower impulsive aggression

parental conflict can lead to internalizing behavior when

child experiences self-blame

learn how to get along with peers.

one of the most important tasks of a middle-school child

they may spout curses, accents, and slang.

A characteristic of the culture of children

some children are well liked, others aren't, and those in both groups change over time.

social acceptance among children indicates

social cognition

ability to understand human interactions

Rita, who is unpopular among her peers, frequently ridicules and antagonizes other children. Her behavior suggests that she is an

aggressive-rejected child.


Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person

peers, parents, and culture

Research has shown that children develop their own standards of right and wrong, guided by


theorist associated with the six stages of moral reasoning


According to Erikson, if 8-year-old Kristina does NOT solve her psychosocial conflict of stage four, she will come to view herself as: inferior.

middle childhood

Civic sense and virtue begins


Freud referred to middle childhood

social comparison.

tendency to assess one's own abilities by measuring them against those of other people, especially peers


capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity

family function

way in which a family works to meet the needs of its members


most common type of family structure for U.S. children aged 6-11

low income and low stability

two factors that significantly interfere with family function in every nation


family that does not support all its members

children attempt to master many skills.

During Erikson's crisis of industry versus inferiority

have lower school achievement

Children in U.S. military families move often

Ten-year-old Julian's parents frequently yell and argue. He will more likely:

feel lonely if he blames himself for his parents' fights.

The difference in the psychosocial development of young children as compared to that of middle-school children is that:

young children's egocentrism makes them less affected by other children's acceptance or rejection of them.

gender stereotypes and gender segregation are strongly maintained.

interesting aspect of the culture of children

kind and cooperative

the most popular young children

Social cognition

ability to understand social interactions


child who is rejected by peers because of timid and anxious behavior

repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm a weaker person

Characteristics of bullying

children are more likely to behave prosocially

in middle school than earlier

Kohlberg would expect a child whose thought processes are egocentric to display moral reasoning:

with a punishment and obedience orientation

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