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opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication (chewing and mixing with saliva)
consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached to posterior region of the mouth. Provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech.
J-shaped sac that mixes and store food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control
ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the small intestine
canal that is approximately 5 ft long and extends from the ileum to the anus. Responsible for absorption of water and solid waste elimination
portion between the cecum and rectum. Consists of 4 parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and the sigmoid colon
remaining portion of the large intestine approximately 8-10 inches long that extends from the sigmoid colon to the anus
sphincter muscle (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight at the end of the digestive tract
produces bile, necessary for the digestion of fats. (Liver also perform many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism)
produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for CHO metabolism
abnormal condition of multiple polyps (in the mucus membrane of the intestine, especially the colon; high potential for malignancy)
inflammation of the liver associated with (excess) fat; often caused by alcohol abuse and obesity; over time may cause cirrhosis
abnormal growing together of two surfaces that are normally separated. May occur after abdominal surgery; treatment is called ahesiolysis or adhesiotomy
eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females, and abnormal fear of becoming obese
an eating disorder involving gorging with food followed induced vomiting or laxative abuse (binging and purging)
a malabsorption syndrome caused by an immune system reaction to gluten, which may damage the lining of the small intestine responsible for absorption of food into the bloodstream
chronic disease of the liver with the gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue; commonly caused by alcoholism and certain types of viral hepatitis
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and colon; characterized by ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn and the gradual breakdown of mucous barrier of the esophagus
an iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposition of iron in the tissue; can cause congestive heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, or cancer of the liver
swollen or distended veins in rectal area, which may be internal or external, and can be a source of rectal bleeding
irritable bowel syndrome
periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea and/or constipation, usually associated with abdominal pain
eroded area of the mucous membrane of stomach or duodenum associated with increased secretion of acid from the stomach, bacterial infection (H. pfylori) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (often referred to as gastric or duodenal ulcer)
tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane; usually benign; common sites are in the nose, throat, and intestines
inflammation of colon with the formation of ulcers. Main symptom is bloody diarrhea, treated with an ileostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the stomach (through the abdominal wall) A tube is inserted through the opening for administering food when swallowing is impossible
surgical repair of the uvula, palate and the pharynx (performed to correct obstructive sleep apnea)
removal of the distal colon and rectum thought both abdominal and perineal approached; performed to treat colorectal cancer an inflammatory disease of the lower large intestine
an opening created by surgically joining two structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments
surgical reduction of gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity causing serious illness
cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve, performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced and this reduce the recurrence of ulcers
process of recording images of internal organs using high frequency sound waves produced by a transducer placed directly on the abdominal cavity
series of radiographic images taken of the large intestine after the contrast agent has been administered rectally (lower GI series)
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
radiographic examination of the biliary ducts and pancreatic ducts with contrast media, fluoroscopy, and endoscopy; used to evaluate and diagnose obstructions, strictures, stone diseases, pacreatitis and pancreatic cancer
upper GI series
series of radiographic images taken of the stomach and duodenum after the contrast agent barium has been swallowed
a procedure using an endoscope fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of the layers of the intestinal wall; used to detect tumors and cystic growths and for staging of malignant tumors
fecal occult blood test
a blood test used to detect occult blood in feces. Used to screen for colon cancer or polyps.
Heliobactor pylori antibodies test (H. pylori)
a blood test used to determine the presence of H. pylori bacteria; it can be found in the lining of the stomach; causes ulcers
a physician who studies and treats diseases of the stomach and intestines (GI tract and accessory organs
study of the stomach and intestines--the branch of medicine that deals with treating diseases of the GI tract and accessory organs
disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine (usually large intestine) associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain
black, tarry stool that contains digested blood; usually a result of bleeding in the upper GI tract
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