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211 terms

Chapter 11 - Digestive System

Medical Terminology
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mouth
opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication (chewing and mixing with saliva)
tongue
consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached to posterior region of the mouth. Provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech.
palate
separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity
soft palate
posterior portion, not supported by bone
hard palate
anterior portion, supported by bone
uvula
soft v-shaped structure that extends from the soft palate; directs food into the throat
pharynx, throat
performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus
esophagus
10-inch tube that is a passageway for food extending from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
J-shaped sac that mixes and store food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control
cardia
area around the opening of the esophagus
fundus
uppermost domed portion of the stomach
body
central portion of the stomach
antrum
lower portion of the stomach
pylorus
portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the small intestine
duodenum
first 10-12" of thee small intestine
jejenum
2nd portion of the small intestine (8 ft long)
ileum
3rd portion of the small intestine (11 ft long); connects with large intestine
large intestine
canal that is approximately 5 ft long and extends from the ileum to the anus. Responsible for absorption of water and solid waste elimination
cecum
blind U-shaped that is the first portion of the large intestine
colon
portion between the cecum and rectum. Consists of 4 parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and the sigmoid colon
rectum
remaining portion of the large intestine approximately 8-10 inches long that extends from the sigmoid colon to the anus
anus
sphincter muscle (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight at the end of the digestive tract
salivary glands
produces saliva, which flows into the mouth
liver
produces bile, necessary for the digestion of fats. (Liver also perform many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism)
bile ducts
passageways that carry bile
hepatic bile duct
passageway that carries bile from the liver
cystic bile duct
passageway that carries from the gall bladder
common bile duct
formed by the hepatic and cystic bile ducts
gall bladder
small sac-like structure that stores bile
pancreas
produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for CHO metabolism
peritoneum
serous sac-like lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
appendix
small pouch, which has no known function in digestion, attached to the cecum
abdomen
portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
an/o
anus
antr/o
antrum
cec/o,colon/
cecum
duoden/o
duodenum
enter/o
intestine (usually denoting the small intestine)
esphag/o
esophagus
gastr/o
stomach
ile/o
ileum
jejun/o
jejunum
or/o, stamat/o
mouth
proct/o, rect/o
rectum
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
abdomin/o,celi/o,lapard/o
abdomen (abdominal cavity)
append/o, appendic/o
appendix
cheil/o
lip
cholangi/o
bile duct
chole/o
gall, bile
choledoch/o
common bile duct
diverticul/o
diverticulum, or blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ
gingiv/o
gum
gloss/o
tongue
hepat/
liver
herni/o
hernia, or protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall
palat/o
palate
pancreat/o
pancreas
peritone/o
peritoneum
polyp/o
polyp
pylor/o
pylorus
sial/o
saliva, salivary gland
steat/o
fat
uvul/o
uvula
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
cholangioma
tumor of the bile duct
cholecystitis
inflammation of the gall bladder
choledocholithiasis
condition of stones in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis
condition of gall stones
diverticulitis
inflammation of the diverticulum
diverticulosis
abnormal condition of having diverticula
esophagitis
inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach and intestines
gastoenterocolitis
inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hepatoma
tumor of the liver
palatitis
inflammation of the palate
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
polyposis
abnormal condition of multiple polyps (in the mucus membrane of the intestine, especially the colon; high potential for malignancy)
proctoposis
prolapse of the rectum
rectocele
protrusion of the rectum
siaolith
stone in the salivary gland
steatohepatitis
inflammation of the liver associated with (excess) fat; often caused by alcohol abuse and obesity; over time may cause cirrhosis
uvilitis
inflammation of the uvula
adhesion
abnormal growing together of two surfaces that are normally separated. May occur after abdominal surgery; treatment is called ahesiolysis or adhesiotomy
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females, and abnormal fear of becoming obese
bulima nervosa
an eating disorder involving gorging with food followed induced vomiting or laxative abuse (binging and purging)
celiac disease
a malabsorption syndrome caused by an immune system reaction to gluten, which may damage the lining of the small intestine responsible for absorption of food into the bloodstream
cirrhosis
chronic disease of the liver with the gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue; commonly caused by alcoholism and certain types of viral hepatitis
Crohn's disease
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and colon; characterized by ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn and the gradual breakdown of mucous barrier of the esophagus
hemochromatosis
an iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposition of iron in the tissue; can cause congestive heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, or cancer of the liver
hemorrhoids
swollen or distended veins in rectal area, which may be internal or external, and can be a source of rectal bleeding
ileus
obstruction of the intestine, caused by failure of peristalsis
intussusception
telescoping of a segment of the intestine
irritable bowel syndrome
periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea and/or constipation, usually associated with abdominal pain
obesity
excess body fat (not body weight)
peptic ulcer
eroded area of the mucous membrane of stomach or duodenum associated with increased secretion of acid from the stomach, bacterial infection (H. pfylori) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (often referred to as gastric or duodenal ulcer)
polyp
tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane; usually benign; common sites are in the nose, throat, and intestines
ulcerative colitis
inflammation of colon with the formation of ulcers. Main symptom is bloody diarrhea, treated with an ileostomy
volvulus
twisting or kinking of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction
abdominocentesis
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity
abdominoplasty
surgical repair of the abdomen
hemi
half
pepsia
digestion
anoplasty
surgical repair of the anus
antrectomy
excision of the antrum
appendectomy
excision of the appendix
celiotomy
incision into the abdominal cavity
cheilorrahaphy
suture of the lip
cholecystectomy
excision of the gall bladder
choledocholithotomy
incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone
colectomy
excision of the colon
colostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the colon (through the abdominal wall)
diverticulectomy
excision of a diverticulum
enterorrhaphy
suture of the intestine
esphagogastroplasty
surgical repair of the esophagus and the stomach
gastrectomy
excision of the stomach (or part of the stomach)
gastrojejunostomy
creation of an artificial opening into the stomach (through the abdominal wall) A tube is inserted through the opening for administering food when swallowing is impossible
gigivectomy
surgical removal of gum tissue
glossorraphy
suture of the tongue
hemicolectomy
excision of half of the colon
herniorraphy
suturing of the hernia for (repair)
ileostomy
creation of an artificial opening in the abdominal wall (used for passage of stool)
laparotomy
incision into the abdominal cavity
palatoplasty
surgical repair of the palate
polypectomy
excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy
incision into the pyloric muscle
pyloroplasty
surgical repair of the pylorus
uvulectomy
excision of the uvula
uvulpalatopharyngoplasty
surgical repair of the uvula, palate and the pharynx (performed to correct obstructive sleep apnea)
abdominoperineal resection
removal of the distal colon and rectum thought both abdominal and perineal approached; performed to treat colorectal cancer an inflammatory disease of the lower large intestine
anastomosis
an opening created by surgically joining two structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments
bariatric surgery
surgical reduction of gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity causing serious illness
hemmorhoidectomy
excision of hemorrhoids
vagotomy
cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve, performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced and this reduce the recurrence of ulcers
cholangiogram
radiographic image of bile ducts
cholangiography
radiographic imaging of the bile ducts
CT colongraphy
radiographic imaging of the colon
esophagogram
radiographic image of the esophagus
colonscope
instrument used for visual examination of the colon
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon
endoscope
instrument used for visual examination of a hollow organ
endocscopy
visual examination of a hollow organ
esphagogastroduodenoscopy
visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
esophagoscopy
visual examination of the esophagus
gastroscope
instrument used for visual examination of the stomach
gastroscopy
visual examination of the stomach
laparoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the abdominal cavity
laparoscopy
visual examination of the abdominal cavity
proctoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the rectum
proctoscopy
visual examination of the rectum
sigmoidoscopy
visual examination of the sigmoid colon
abdominal ultrasonography
process of recording images of internal organs using high frequency sound waves produced by a transducer placed directly on the abdominal cavity
barium enema
series of radiographic images taken of the large intestine after the contrast agent has been administered rectally (lower GI series)
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
radiographic examination of the biliary ducts and pancreatic ducts with contrast media, fluoroscopy, and endoscopy; used to evaluate and diagnose obstructions, strictures, stone diseases, pacreatitis and pancreatic cancer
upper GI series
series of radiographic images taken of the stomach and duodenum after the contrast agent barium has been swallowed
endoscopic ultrasound
a procedure using an endoscope fitted with an ultrasound probe that provides images of the layers of the intestinal wall; used to detect tumors and cystic growths and for staging of malignant tumors
fecal occult blood test
a blood test used to detect occult blood in feces. Used to screen for colon cancer or polyps.
Heliobactor pylori antibodies test (H. pylori)
a blood test used to determine the presence of H. pylori bacteria; it can be found in the lining of the stomach; causes ulcers
abdominal
pertaining to the abdomen
anal
pertaining to the anus
aphagia
without swallowing (the inability to)
celiac
pertaining to the abdomen
colorectal
pertaining to the colon and the rectum
duodenal
pertaining to the duodenum
dyspepsia
difficult digestion (used to describe GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain and bloating
dysphagia
difficult swallowing
enteropathy
disease of the intestine
esophageal
pertaining to the esophagus
gastric
pertaining to the stomach
gastroenterologist
a physician who studies and treats diseases of the stomach and intestines (GI tract and accessory organs
gastroenterology
study of the stomach and intestines--the branch of medicine that deals with treating diseases of the GI tract and accessory organs
gastromalacia
softening of the stomach
glossopathy
disease of the tongue
ileocecal
pertaining to the ileum and cecum
nasogastric
pertaining to the nose and stomach
ascites
abdominal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
diarrhea
frequent discharge of liquid stool
dysentery
disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine (usually large intestine) associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain
emesis
expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth (vomiting)
feces
waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum
flatus
gas in the digestive tract or expelled through the anus
gastric lavage
washing out of the stomach
gavage
process of feeding a person through a nasogastric tube
hematemesis
vomiting of blood
hematochezia
passage of bloody
malabsorption
impaired digestion or intestinal absorption of nutrient
melena
black, tarry stool that contains digested blood; usually a result of bleeding in the upper GI tract
nausea
urge to vomit
peristalsis
involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract
reflux
abnormal backflow. In esophageal reflux, the stomach contents flow back into the esophagus
stoma
surgical opening between an organ and the surface of the body
vomiting
expelling matter from the stomach through the mouth (also called emesis)
A&P resection
abdominoperineal resection
BE
barium enema
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP
endoscopy retrograde cholangiopancreatography
EUS
endoscopic ultrasound
FOBT
fecal occult blood test
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
H. pylori
Heliobactor pylori
IBS
irritable bowel syndrome
N&V
nausea and vomiting
PEG
percutaneous endoscopy gastrostomy
UGI
upper gastrointestinal
UPPP
uvulopalatopharngoplasty