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45 - 120 Seconds

Automatic film processing typically processes a film in?

1.) Transport system
2.) Dryer system
3.) Replenishment system
4.) Circulation system
5.) Temperature control system

The automatic processing components are considered complex and utilize several subsystems to completely process a radiograph that include?

1.) Developing
2.) Fixing
3.) Washing
4.) Drying

Primary Automatic Processing steps are composed of?


Stage of processing which the latent image is converted a visible image. It is very short and highly critical to the film processing sequence.


The developing temperature is usually maintained at ___ º F?


Developing typicall occurs in ___ seconds.


Removes remaining silver halide from emulsion and hardens gelatin.


Removes any excess chemicals from the previous processing steps.


Wash water should be maintained at __º F lower than developer temperature.


Washing typically occurs in ___ seconds.


Removes water and prepares the film for viewing.


The air temperatures range for drying is ____ - 150 º F.


Drying typically occurs in ___ seconds?

Transport System

What is designed to move film through components of the processor?

1.) Rollers
2.) Transport rack subassembly
3.) Drive Motor Subsystem

Transport system consists of what principle subsystems?

1.) Transport
2.) Master
3.) Planetary

Roller subassembly consist of what types of rollers?

Transport Rollers

They convey the film along its path.

Master Roller

It is - used when the film makes a turn in the processor.

Planetary Rollers

It is - positioned around the master roller with metal or plastic guide shoes.

Transport Rack Subassembly

They are easily removable and provide for convenient maintenance and efficient cleaning of the processor and uses guide shoes to guide film around bends.

Turnaround Assembly

Systems that consist of a master roller, planetary rollers, and guide shoes is called a? It is located at the bottom of the transport rack assembly.

Crossover Rack

As film exits the top of the rack assembly, it is guided to the adjacent rack assembly through a?

Drive Motor Subsystem

A chain, pulley, or gear assembly transfers power to the transport rack and drives the rollers.

Thermocouple or Thermistor

Temperature is monitored at each stage by a ______ and is controlled thermostatically by a controlled heating element in each tank.

Replenishment System

Replaces chemicals that are depleted in developer and fixer. It is accomplished by metering the proper quantities of chemicals into each tank to maintain volume and chemical activity.

Circulation System

Designed to continuously pump the developer and fixer in order to maintain constant agitation within each tank and uses water that is circulated through the wash tank to remove all of the processing chemicals from the surface of the film before drying.

Dryer System

Consists of a blower, ventilation ducts, drying tubes, and an exhaust system. Functions to extract all residual moisture from the processed radiograph, so it can drop into the receiving bin dry.

Negative Internal Air Pressure

Dryer systems should be run at a _____ so that air is continually being sucked in and the fume-laden moist air vented externally.

Quality Control (QC) in Diagnostic Radiology

It requires a planned continuous program of evaluation and surveillance.

1.) Periodic cleaning
2.) System maintenance
3.) Daily monitoring

Quality Control (QC) in Diagnostic Radiology consists of?

Scheduled Maintenance

Refers to routine procedures, usually performed weekly or monthly. Maintenance of all moving parts for wear.

Preventive Maintenance

Planned program of part replacement at regular intervals before equipment failure.

Nonscheduled Maintenance

Failure in the system that requires processor repair is a nonscheduled event.


It is any irregularity that is not caused by the proper shadowing of tissue by the primary x-ray beam.

1.) Processing Artifacts
2.) Handling Artifacts
3.) Exposure Artifacts

Artifacts are classified into the what following categories?

Guide Shoe

Roller marks caused by improperly positioned or sprung guide shoes.

Pi Lines

Roller marks that occur at 3.1416 (represents one revolution of a roller) inch intervals due to dirt or chemical stain on rollers.

Dirty Rollers

It causes emulsion pick-off and gelatin buildup result in sludge.


They are transported and dried on the film in the dryer.

Dichroic Stain

Chemical fog due to inadequate processing chemistry.

Curtain Effect

Chemical fog that is caused by chemistry that is not squeezed out properly from film that runs up the edge of the film.

Wet-Pressure Sensitization

Produced in the developer tank, pressure from irregular or dirty rollers produce small circular patterns of increased optical density (OD).

1.) Light / Radiation Fog
2.) Kink Marks
3.) Static Marks
4.) Hyporetention

Handling artifacts examples are?

Kink Marks

Characteristic artifacts can be caused by improper handling or storage either before or after processing. It can be caused by rough handling or abrupt bending.

Static Marks

It is caused by the build-up of electrons in the emulsion and is considered most obvious artifact.

1.) Crown
2.) Tree
3.) Smudge

What are the distinct patterns of static artifacts?


It is caused by a long storage time and reveals a yellow-brown stain that slowly appears on the radiograph.

Exposure Artifacts

Generally associated with the manner in which the radiographer conducts the examination.

1.) Improper patient positioning
2.) Patient motion
3.) Double exposure
4.) Poor technique
5.) Incorrect screen-film match

Examples of exposure artifacts include?

1.) External / Preventable
Ex. : Necklaces, pendants, hearing aids, chains, zippers, and other jewelry

2.) Internal / Non-Preventable
Ex. : Prostheses, dental fillings, feeding/chest tubes, central lines

Preventable artifacts worn by the patient.

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