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a reference, sometimes subtle, to an earlier literary work or historical event or character.
the methods by which an author builds and develops the identities of people in a story
a style of writing that reflects how people actually speak, not necessarily standard English.
the process of revealing essential information about the story usually early in the narrative.
first person narrator
the voice telling the story refers to him or herself as an integral part of the story
the effect of the surface meaning of a word or phrase being undercut by a different underlying meaning
limited omniscient narrator
3rd person point of view restricted to the thoughts and feelings of a single character
the desires or the goals or aspirations of a character which direct his or her actions and choices.
the point at which the conflict in a narrative is brought to an end or at least suspended
someone who is complex and has a range of characteristics, possibly even contradictory ones
a writer's voice as reflected in their word choices and their sentence structure and their tone
an idea or issue which recurs in a story and is, therefore, an essential part of the subject of the story
Third person narrator
the voice telling the story is not directly involved in the action of the story.
a narrative voice that may be lying, exaggerating, or misunderstanding the events he or she is retelling.
an effect related to the way in which a writer withholds information from the reader thus keeping the resolution in doubt.
objective or journalistic point of view
writing that seeks to inform by making accurate factual claims based on careful and balanced research.
writing that uses factual claims and claims of value to argue for a particular position or point of view
claims of value
subjective assertions that assign importance or priority to certain ideas or concepts.
the quality of a gesture, an event or a word or phrase that allows it to be interpreted in more than one way
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