ASL Interpreting 3310
Terms in this set (95)
Announced to the world that d/Deaf people have a right to communicate (full access) & voted to establish a national body of interpreters.
1965. 1st formal interpreting program
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.
1972. First certification exam
What did the RID establish?
Code of ethics, payment for services, created professional standards.
RID's 4 minimal requirements
Able to hear
Able to sign
National Association of the Deaf
Birth of Professional Interpreting
June 14-17th, 1964 at Ball State
NTID National Technology Institute for the Deaf
1966. 2nd formal interpreting program
1988. A series of events that took place to have Zinser and Spillman resign and a Deaf president for Gallaudet.
Title V, Section 504
1973. Any federally funded agency is required to provide access for Deaf people.
Bilingual, Hearing & Speech Impaired Court Interpreting Act
1977. Federal government courts must provide interpreters for d/Deaf in criminal and/or civil court cases. Courts check qualifications of interpreter.
1990. Reaffirmed PL-94-142. Interpreters are necessary for mainstream setting.
ADA (Americans with Disability Act)
1990. Any Federally funded business (or with 15+ employees) must provide reasonable accommodations to persons with disabilities.
VR (Vocational Rehab Act)
1965. Non-discrimination act to individuals who are handicapped.
PL 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act)
1975. Children with disabilities are placed into a "least restrictive environment" or LRE, including d/Deaf.
CPC Tenet 1
Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication.
CPC Tenet 2
Interpreters possess the professional skills & knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
CPC Tenet 3
Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
CPC Tenet 4
Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers.
CPC Tenet 5
Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns and students of the profession.
CPC Tenet 6
Interpreters maintain ethical business practices.
CPC Tenet 7
Interpreters engage in professional development.
Models of Interpreting: Helper
Before RID was established. No qualifications. Volunteer/usually friends, family, person who knows sign. No standards, professional development, network, etc. Paternalistic behaviors. Attitude of "Deaf Need"/Dependancy.
Model of Interpreting: Conduit/Machine
Follows CPC. No Emotions. No cultural mediation. Potentially not using conceptually accurate signs. Interpreters not involved. "Robot". Word for word. No or minimal facial expressions.
Model of Interpreting: Bi-Bi
Follows CPC. Cultural mediation. Fluency in 2 language & culture. Interpreter decides their role. Will see some advocacy (during, after or outside situation aka Deaf Heart). Registers fluency.
Model of Interpreting: Communication Facilitator
Follows CPC. Interprets ambient/visual noise. Psychological stress: simultaneously processing 2 languages while mediating through 2 cultures. Interpreters portrays meaning. Uses memory (retention skills). Decodes words. Interpreters use appropriate turn taking strategies. Registers fluency.
Utah Interpreting Program
E.I.P.A (Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment)
Established in 1999. Elevates the skill and knowledge of interpreters for K-12.
Written test ($200)
Sign to Voice; Voice to Sign ($310)
Total of ($510)
Utah Novice Certification
Sign to Voice; Voices to Sign, Role play
Total of ($210)
Utah Professional Certification
Written Test *if passed the novice, do not have to take again.
ASL Sign to Voice
ASL Voice to Sign
Transliteration Sign to Voice
Transliteration Voice to Sign
Total of ($150-210)
NIC ($685/Member= $300+385)
Sign to Voice
Voice to Sign
Maintenance of each Certification
Utah Novice - 20 hrs per year/$70 per year
Utah Professional - 60 hrs per 3 years/ $70 per year
EIPA - 20 hrs per year/ $70 per year
National NIC - 60 hrs per 3 years/ $160 membership per year.
Encompasses the contributions of all participants as well as the environment (physical and psychological) multi-dimensional & dynamic
ADD A PHOTO.
The effects of the preceding categories on the interpreting outcome. (how each affects the other)
Interpreting Errors: Omission
Delete(s) information. Causes: religious, political, personal beliefs, lack of skill (interpreting or memory), paternalism.
Interpreting Errors: Addition
Adding information. Causes: opinion, biases, paternalism, could be used appropriately (providing context)
Interpreting Errors: Substitution
Substituting/replacing words. Causes: opinions, biases, paternalism, could be use appropriately (providing context)
Interpreting Errors: Intrusion
Impedes the Source language (SL) to Target Language (TL) process of facilitating communication. Causes: Environmental, personal, psychological.
The interpreter waits for the speaker (signer/non-signer) to a chunk of the message before transmitting it.
The interpreter attempts to keep pace with the speaker.
That which is expressed by the initiator. (Verbal/Non-verbal)
Parts of a message
Purpose, Content, Paralinguistics, Form
Parts of a message: Purpose
Reason for the message. (Why they are communicating)
Parts of a message: Content
Information & Description
(Abstract, concrete, familiar or unfamiliar)
Parts of a message: Paralinguistic
The way(s) in which words/signs are delivered. (Reflect to intended meaning)
Parts of a message: Form
Sign to voice
Voice to sign
3(+) people interacting in an interpreted discourse.
A person who expresses something in English or ASL (SL)
Individual who perceives the message, briefly stores in memory, selects an appropriate way of expressing it in a 2nd language (or other mode of communication) and then expresses it.
SL -> TL
On alert for environmental, linguistic & cultural behaviors.
Individual or group receiving the message. (TL)
Interpreters: Professional or Trade?
Professional because d/Deaf people & their advocates demand equal access to public facilities and events.
Entrepreneurship - guided through training. Does not usually have post-secondary higher education or degrees. (Hands on work: plumber, carpenter, etc.)
Requires/has: ethics, code of conduct, higher education, certification, qualifications, specific knowledge, higher pay, follows standards, CPC.
Marketing the Profession means?
The focus "should be on the broader issue of promoting the profession as opposed to the interpreter."
Volunteer vs Qualified
-No standards, skills, ethics, risky.
-certifications met, appropriate compensation, standards met
Overuse Syndrome Exercises
-Shoulder Shrugs: Raise & drop shoulders
-Forearm flip: gently flip &/or rotate forearm
-Rotating fist: Rotate wrist one way & then other for 10 to 20xs
-Finger spreads: shut & open hands, stretching the fingers as much as possible.
-Head stretch: stretch head up several times
-Head turns: rotate head one way & other way 5 to 10x, move head down & up 5 to 10x
-Shoulder stretches: stretch arms above head & to the sides
-Hand flop: hold one hand up loosely while other hand pushes it down.
-Prayer position: interlock fingers; each hand alternately other hand back.
Agency (Government, Administration, etc)
Can determine the type of interpreting (language, communication mode, consecutive, simultaneous)
The interpreter MUST maintain ethical standards (i.e. confidentiality) information of class schedule (info they already know) not information from setting (i.e. how is their progress, test scores)
Admin should work with the teacher not use the interpreter as a reporter.
To have comprehension of Deaf culture/ASL and Spoken language/Culture.
Physical, social, and psychological context in which an interpreter discourse occurs.
What brings the participants together
positioning/access to information
-standing, sitting, lighting, etc.
-ability to see, hear
Cultural & Linguistics Fluencies
Command of both languages & cultures
ASL & Spoken English
d/Deaf & Hearing Cultures
Proved bilingual individuals enabled those with different languages to communicate.
Video Relay Service
Interpreter CANNOT be in the room with the signer and non signer legally.
Contact between a sign language and a spoken language.
-English mouthing: the articulation of an english word. Intended to facilitate lipreading, clarify to accompany sign or both.
- ASL mouthing: ASL lexical items to clarify a sign particularly in case of ASL adverbials.
-Reduced English mouthing: mouth configurations between the extreme of full english/or ASL mouthing.
A single language dominates, but elements of another language are used.
Alternating between one language and another.
Taking words from one language and using them in another language.
Refers to the interval between an interpreter perceiving a message and conveying it.
Time between input of the SL and the output of the TL
Signer has to read lips to help with communication
The end of each sentence/comment from participants.
Matching a sign to every spoken word or matching each spoken word to sign.
transition of a message from the frozen form of SL into the frozen form of TL
English instructions into spanish.
Interpreter is not the center of attention. The conversation between the participants are not based on the interpreter.
language that do not change. (i.e. scriptures, pledge of allegiance, etc.
i.e General conference, meetings, interviews, etc.
i.e. Dr. Appointments, therapy sessions, etc.
i.e. Book club, parties, etc.
Close friends, family conversation. i.e inside jokes
the notion that one is superior based on ones ability to hear or behave in a manner of one who hears.
Using SEE sign in SEE order w/all English words on the mouth for lipreading.
Gestures. Helps Oral Deaf see better. Non-signer who uses language accessibility service where interpreter/translator mouths all the worlds without signing.
World Federation of the Deaf
Convention on the Rights for Persons with Disabilities
-First international human rights treaty.
Certified Deaf Interpreters
Used for hospitals, governments, legal, mental health, etc.
Telecommunications Accessibility Enchancement Act (TAEA)
1998 Federal Government must provide relay calls to, from and within itself.
Hartford, Connecticut School for the Deaf
1880 banned sign language in classes. Oralism prevailed.
Deaf President Now. March 6-13, 1988
1960s discovered that asl is a language.
Interpreters Service for the Hearing Impaired Act
1994 must be a certified interpreter to work in Utah. If 53A-26A-501 is violated, is guilty of class B misdemeanor and a fine of 1k and 6 months in jail.