CMST 4111 Teacher PP
Terms in this set (110)
Why the spiritual interest?
-No sense of community
-"24/7" consumer culture
-Growing fear, hopeless, anxiety, anger
values? morals? ethics? sacred?
"I, me, my, mine"
Sense of community
24/7 consumer culture
impatient, competitive, narcissistic
% of people with spiritual interest in:
1) Believing in God or Universal Spirit
2) Belong to local religious groups
3) Think religious concerns are "very important"
4) Attend services regularly
% of college students and spiritual life:
1) Believe in God; attend services
2) Seeking meaning and purpose
3) pray regularly
4) seeking ways to grow spiritually
Proactive, self-dominant, and topical varied type of prayer.
Private christian prayer (PCP)
Two of the factors of PCP reflect II functions of:
selfunderstanding and compensation
the II functions of _____ and _____ did not load discretely and thus may be exclusive to II's
Relational maintenance and catharsis
_____ understanding suggests that private prayer functions to increase understanding about the interpersonal target of prayer, which is a function not directly identified with II's
____ is used proactively in relation to PCP
____ may function to increase the likelihood of engaging in private prayer and may even influence the topical direction and enhance the experience of PCP
A comparison of three faith traditions consisting of nondenominational, Southern Baptist, and United Methodist revealed that:
Nondenominational affiliates report using II's to pray before important meetings significantly more than Methodists.
_________ affiliates also report enduring II's to help motivate or enhance their private prayer more significantly than Southern Baptists.
_________ were more likely than United Methodists to indicate that PCP functioned to increase their understanding of God, although this function was evident across all three faith traditions.
What is being sought?
-More personal meaning, purpose, and direction
-Greater sense of faith and community
-Experiencing more sacred moments in life
-Knowing God more deeply and personally
-Seeking to live more spiritually but understanding how to do so (spiritual skills)
-Relation with God, Spirit, Universal Power
-Seeking meaning, purpose, significance in life
-Transcending the ego self "i, me, mine"
-Striving for what is sacred in life
Spirituality includes fostering virtues/character strengths such as:
love, compassion, hope, faith, humility, forgiveness, gratitude, etc.
Who said "...institutional religion seems designed to prevent the faith from having a spiritual experience"
-The sacred and central theme of religion
-Organized social system of rules, beliefs, practices, rivals, symbols
-Primarily community focused, institutional
-Doctrine oriented with rules for inclusion
-Seeking union or relationship with God or Universal Power or Spirit
-Purpose, meaning, significance in life
-Quality of social/personal relations
-Perceived mastery (integrity, self regulation)
Health as positive qualities/characteristics
Weekly attendance of church can lower your percent of death by ___%, adding ____ years of life
Fundamentalism in religion/spirituality:
exclusive, rigid, authoritarian, militant, end justifies means, into-scientific
Spirituality indirectly effects ______ over time
Types of spiritual practices:
Meditation, prayer, forgiveness/compassion, serving others, spiritual reading, attending services, rituals, etc.
When an individual observes another person to behave in some way, there is a strong tendency to attribute the behavior to an inherent cultural trait.
Situational factors are down played
When an individual is engaging in the same behavior, the attribution to situational factors is much more likely.
Attributes of II's:
The extent to which individuals imagine that they do the majority of the talking during II's
A continuum of emotional affect ranging from positive to negative emotions
number of partners in one's II
The degree of ______ between imagined and real conversations
how often one experiences II's
Functions of II's:
Individuals better understand themselves with the help of II
repeat rehearsal of negative, conflict-laden messages
individuals in II feel emboldened/ free from societal situational norms/ constraints
On self-dominance: Encourage of self-expression, self-recognition, verbal assertiveness, social initiative
On self-dominance: _______ is more dominant in conversations than Japanese
On self-dominance: _____ values of staying silent
On valence: Favor harmonious, pleasant and non-confrontational social interaction
On valence: Emphasis on making life enjoyable
Samuk; thai culture
On valence: Tendency to be self-critical; pessimistic thinking
On variety: Group based society, with individual having large social network; large groups meeting frequently
On variety: Interpretation: because individuals having limited social network OR placing II focus on key school/family connections
______ has no significant cross-culture differences
On frequency: Verbal behavior among ______, speaking more frequently than the other cultures students
On frequency: tend to be quieter, less inclined to talk, or to express disagreement
On rehearsal: Self-reflection, thinking back over events for evaluation; eternal quest for perfectionism (through persistence and hard work) might include interpersonal planning
On rehearsal: karma (previous actions influence present and future outcome) leading to acceptance of life's circumstances
On self-understanding: role of hansei (self-criricism and self-reflection) that implies self-understanding as well. Self improvement, a value that shared with american culture.
On self-understanding: practical, realistic culture concerned with issues of daily life rather than on deeper understanding of the self
an issue more central in Asia than North America
On conflict linkage: Importance of relational harmony, avoidance of vocal and physical confrontation. When conflict disturbs this harmony, they make it up by keeping it alive via II
Japanese and Thai cultures
On conflict linkage: Confronting problematic issues in order to solve them
On boldness: "tight" culture implying bolder II. The rigid social rules and norms of behavior imply a sorption of inner feelings, leading to a safe, punitive-free outlet of self-expression thru II
A cultural pattern in which the individual views the self as part of an in-group the the extent that the self is merged with other members of the in-group, all of whom are very similar to each other
______ is a key component of horizontal collectivism
characterized not only by the typical collectivist patterns of submission to in-group norms and self-sacrifice for the in-group, but also marked in-group status differences among members
a cultural pattern in which the self is important and independent, but essentially is equal in status with others, but also seek equality and freedom. Pursue their own path, and tend to avoid comparisons with others
characterized by not only an important and autonomous "self," but also the desire to view oneself as different from others. Social relations are characterized by competition, and there are differences in authority based on status, low equality, high freedom, and a market democracy. Self-reliance is stressed, as is being "number one."
____ model was significant with horizontal collectivism accounting for additional variances beyond rehearsal and catharsis.
IIs contribute to the development, storage, and retrieval of knowledge that individuals use to:
Learn the rules of a given language, not generally learned in a classroom
Using an II to access information to make sense of their cross-cultural experience (comparing between host and native culture)
Using II's to Retroactively evaluate their experiences and develop a behavioral script (II in the host language with classmates, professors ...),
to rehearse for potential encounters, and to reduce uncertainty and enhance their integration into the host culture
Stages to use II's to learn English as a second language:
-Stage 1: Cognitive stage
-Stage 2: Association stage
-Stage 3: Autonomous stage
involves conscious mental activity to assimilate what is said in the second language
Stage 1: Cognitive stage
Rehearsal IIs, focusing on the other person (other-oriented II)
Stage 1: Cognitive stage
2nd language learner fine tune their knowledge of the target language
Stage 2: Association stage
Retroactive and proactive IIs, to correct language error
Stage 2: Association stage
2nd language learner automatically process the language for functional purposes
Stage 3: Autonomous stage
IIs in English, focused on social, academic activities and assignments
Stage 3: Autonomous stage
Explains the persistence of long-standing conflict in the human mind despite years of talk therapy; Cannot forgive or forget
Imagined Interaction Conflict-Linkage Theory
Most physiological measures are not:
under conscious control
Stress is measured through:
-wrist activity, galvanic skin response
A critical role for the PNS is to:
control arousal and emotional expression
kinds live in a state of hyper-alertness and have lower heart-rate variability and a poor PNS
The PNS is associated with:
peace, recovery and relaxation
__________ is associated with stress in terms of responding to an external threat such as having an argument, anxiety, arousal, conflict, tension, and adrenalin
sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
sudden, typically short lived, threatening event (i.e. robbery, giving a speech)
Ongoing environmental demand (i.e. marital conflict, work, stress, personality)
no ____ differences in the effect of work on BP and HR
In both men and women, BP and HR were _______ on a workday than a non-work day
the potential stressor is an _____ event
is this event positive, neutral or negative; and if negative, how bad?
Do i have resources or skills to handle this event?
Secondary appraisal; if no, then distress
amount of damage already caused
expectation for future harm
opportunity to achieve growth, etc
Personal factors affecting stress appraisal:
Situational factors affecting stress appraisals:
-Ambiguity (role or harm)
Perform an action
using a mental strategy
Stress affects health through:
behavior and physiology
Behavioral aspects of stress:
-Inattention leading to carelessness
-Learned helplessness occurs when one perceives that one's actions (e.g., working hard) does not lead to an expected outcome (e.g., praise).
increased blood pressure, platelets, lipids (cholesterol)
increased catecholamine and corticosteroids
increased hormones impairs immune function
_______ generally employ problem-focused coping strategies more than emotional focused strategies
_________ generally employ emotion-focused coping strategies
expression of empathy, understanding, caring, etc.
positive regard, encouragement, validating self-worth
lending a helpful hand
Tangible or instrumental social support
Providing information, new insights, and advice
Feeling of belonging
Aims to either reduce hyper arousal or curb emotional-physiological reactivity
Aim is to control emotions by playing a medley of songs depending on the existing emotional state of the person
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