How are natural cellulosic fibers classified?
Classified according to the plant component from which they are removed.
Type of fiber that grows within a pod or boll from developing seeds. Must be separated from seed to be used.
Type of fiber that is obtained from the stem and root of a plant, near outer edge (epidermis)
What are the 3 steps in cotton production?
1. Cotton boll splits open (is mature) and its picked 2. Cotton taken to a gin and is ginned 3. The fibers are pressed into bales and sold to spinning mills
What are the 7 other products that linters can make?
1. Rayon and acetate 2.Cellophane 3. Photographic film 4. mail polish 5. methylcellulose-make up products 6. chewing gum 7. seeds are crushed to obtain cotton seed oil and meal
How are convolutions formed?
When the cotton fibers mature and the central canal collapses, the reverse spirals in the 2nd layer causes the fibers to twist. Lumen will collapse and makes convolutions
What are the 4 permanent changes from mercerization of cotton
1. swelling of fiber 2. increases absorbency and dyeability 3.Creates rounder cross section 4. Increase luminosity and smoothness
What are the 5 reasons cotton is comfortable?
1. high absorbency 2. soft hand 3. good heat conductivity 4. good electric conductivity 5. absorbs moisture in cool, damp conditions
What is cotton's heat conductivity like?
good heat conductivity- Lets the heat pass through, why we where it in summer
Why is polyester and nylon used in carpets and not cotton?
Polyester and nylon have high resiliency and cotton doesn't
What 2 things are used in processing cotton (may not be best for environment)
1. Use of large quantities of energy (like heat and water) 2.Use of chemicals to clean the fiber, to finish and dye the fabrics
What 4 farming methods of cotton make an environmental impact?
1. Use of chemical fertilizers 2. Use of pesticides 3. strip leaves for harvest 4. control of plant growth
3 types of cotton that are moving towards a new direction are?
Organic cotton, Transition cotton, and Green cotton
____ are removed from the seeds and are used to a limited extent as raw material in producing things
Based on the length of fiber, what are the 3 groups of Cotton fiber?
Upland, Long-staple, and Short-staple
With type of fiber length, what type is pima and egyptian and why?
long-staple because it is finer, softer, and higher quality
Bundles of cellulose chains in cotton. Cellulose layers are composed of this and it is arranged in a spiral that sometimes reverses direction
How does fibrils contribute to the convolutions in cotton fiber?
Cellulose layers are composed of fibrils and it is arranged in a spiral that sometimes reverses direction. The reverse spirals contribute to the development of convolutions that affect the fiber's elastic recovery and elongation
In cotton, what do convolutions affect?
They affect the cotton fiber's elastic recovery and elongation
Why is yarn spinning easy for cotton, even with its short length?
Convolutions form a natural texture that enables the fibers to cling to one another
Why does cotton have good absorbency and why can it react well with dyes and many finishes?
Cotton fibers are amorphous and have empty pockets for good absorbency or moisture. (More?)
Why does cotton feel comfortable against the skin?
soft hand, high absorbency, and good heat and electric conductivity (no static buildup). Has no surface characteristics that irritate the skin. Fibers absorb moisture and feel good against the skin in high humidity
Cotton has low resiliency and it stays wrinkled. Explain why (scientifically)
The hydrogen bonds holding the molecular chains together are weak, so when fabrics are crushed or bent, chains move freely to new positions. When pressure removed, these weak internal forces cannot pull the chains back to their original positions, so fabric stays wrinkled.
Type of cotton that produces less fiber per acre, but sell for about twice the price of white cotton. Are shorter and have less uniform properties than do white cotton
naturally colored cotton
Type of fiber that is produced following state fiber- certification standards on land where organic farming practices have been used for at least 3 yrs.No synthetic commercial pesticides or fertilizers are used.
What are the major uses of cotton (in %s) ?
50% apparel, 60% of furnishings, 9% of the industrial or technical products sold in the US
Fiber that is obtained from the fibrous mass between the outer shell and the husk of the coconut.
What is coir's texture like? What does it produce in fabrics?
Has a stiff, wiry texture and coarse size that produces fabrics whose weave, pattern, or design is clearly visible
The process of bacterial rotting or decomposing the pectin in plant stems in order to remove bast fibers.
The process of separating bast fiber bundles into individual fibers and removing short irregular fibers. Aka combing
Under the microscope (longitudinal view), what characteristic feature of Flax fiber can be used to identify it?
Flax fibers have nodes or joints-crosswise markings. Nodes appear to be slightly swollen and resemble joints in a stalk of corn or bamboo.
What do nodes or joints contribute to in flax?
They contribute to its flexibility and how you recognize flax under a microscope
Among Cotton, flax, and ramie, which fiber is the strongest? Why and what is it resistant to?
Ramie-one of the strongest natural fibers and strength increases when wet. Resistant to insects, rotting, mildew, and shrinkage
Hemp fiber is suitable for making cordage or twine, explain why?
It has high strength and is resistant to rotting when exposed to water
What are 5 other types of fibers (not bast, seed, or leaf)?
Rush, sea grass, maize or cornhusks, palm fiber, wicker
In processing bast fibers, this step is the removal of pectins-to loosen the fibers from the stalk
In processing bast fibers, this step is the removal of woody portions by rinsing and dying the stems
In processing bast fibers, this step separates the fibers from one another and removal of short and irregular fiber
What are the 6 main properties of flax (pilling, linting, resiliency, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency)?
1. low pilling 2. low linting tendancies 3. low resiliency, low elasticity-like cotton, good abrasion resistance high absorbency
With the longitudinal view of flax, what is its main visible feature?
Noticeable crosswise marking called nodes that resemble bamboo-like appearance
With flax and its comfort, is it a good or poor conductor of heat?
good conductor of heat-lets heat pass through
With flax and its comfort, is it a good or poor conductor of elasticity?
good conductor of elasticity- no clingy
Type of bast fiber that comes from tall shrubs, harvested every 60 days, plant is cut and not pulled, similar to flax, and very strong fiber, esp when wet
Ramie or grasscloth
What are the 3 properties of hemp (UV and mold, elongation, strength(MORE?)
Resistant to UV and mold, Lowest elongation among natural fibers, High strength (MORE??)
Generic names are only for what types of fibers as per Textile Fiber Product Identification Act (TFPIA)
___ ____ fibers are classified according to the plant component from which they are removed.
Natural cellulosic fibers