103 terms

Dwight Russell - Final

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Who was the most associated w/ the ancient Greek world view?
Aristotle
Who rejected the geocentric world view?
Aristarchus
Who accurately determined the size of the Earth?
Eratosthenes
Who wrote the "Almagest" which was the standard astronomy book for 1400 years?
Ptolemy
Geocentric model of the universe
- Earth = center of universe
-Everything orbits around earth
Heliocentric Model of the Universe
-Sun=center of universe... everything orbits around Sun
-Originally created by Aristarchus.
-Aristarchus thought Earth revolved around Sun b/c Sun is much bigger
***Solves the retrograde motion
Retrograde Motion
-When planet moves backwards against its normal motion
-Occurs when planes orbit Earth as Greeks thought
Copernicus
-Associated with heliocentric worldview (and retrograde motion)
-Did not add anything extra like the Greeks did
Tycho Brahe
-Last astronomer w/o telescope
-Provided Kepler with data needed for Kepler to develop his 3 laws of motion
J. Kepler
Created the 3 Laws of Planetary Motion
Kepler's First Law
-Orbit in relation to Sun = elliptical orbit
-Eccentricity = shape of the ellipse
-Focus = focus of the ellipse (where the Sun is)
Kepler's Second Law
-"Law of equal areas" (movement on the orbit)
-Planets move faster the closer they are to the Sun
-A line drawn from the Sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times as the planet orbits the Sun
Kepler's Third Law
-"Harmonic Law"..... -> P^2=A^3

P=period of orbit
A=average distance from planet->Sun
Galileo
-Challenged the conventional wisdom of the motion of objects & the nature of heavens w/ telescope
-Challenged geocentric model (Venus Phases, Jupiter Moons, Sunspots, mins on Moon)
Newton
Associated w/ Three Laws of Motion and Universal Law of Gravity
Newton's First Law
-Law of Inertia
-Objects at rest stay at rest, objects in motion stay in motion... until net force acts upon it
Newton's Second Law
-Motion is changed by forces
-Velocity (speed AND direction)

Acceleration=Force/Mass
A=F/m
Acceleration
The rate at which the velocity of an object changes
Newton's Third Law
-Every action has an equal & opposite force/reaction
-Forces always come in pairs that are = in strength but in opposite direction
Newton's Universal Law of Gravity
-Explains planets orbiting the Sun
-States that gravity is a force b/n any 2 objects having mass and 3 properties:
1. Gravity = straight force acting on straight line b/n 2 objects
2. Gravity = proportional to the mass of each object
3. Greater separation b/n 2 objects = less force
Light is a wave
Light is a wave
fx=c
f = frequency
x = Wavelength
c = velocity (speed) of light
Light is only one type of electromagnetic wave, T/F?
True
Wavelengths longest-shortest
Radio
Microwave
Infrared
Visible
Ultraviolet
X-ray
Gamma Ray
What are the visible light wavelengths (longest to shortest)
ROY-G-BIV
Blackbody
-Absorbs and reemits all electromagnetic energy it receives
-Measures light to find temperature
Wien's Law
-Relationship describing how wavelength peak (and color) of electromagnetic radiation from a glowing blackbody changes with temp.
Stefan-Boltzmann's Law
-If stars = same size.. the hotter the object... the more luminous the star
-Speed of EM waves in a vacuum is same for ALL wavelengths and is equal to speed of light
Continuous Spectrum
-All wavelengths over a comparatively wide range
-Usually characteristic of solids and other substances at high temps
Emission Spectrum
-Pattern of dark lines/colors made when electromagnetic energy (light) passes through substance and excites atoms
-Atoms give off energy in form of light
-Each atom gives off light having unique range of colors
-Spectrum used to determine substance's chemical composition
Absorption Line Spectrum
-Spectrum of electromagnetic radiation that has passed through a medium that absorbed radiation of certain wavelengths
-Can be used to identify the composition of distant substances, such as the gaseous outer layers of stars.
Doppler Effect
-Used the Blue or Red Shift Experiment
-Explains the change in wavelength of sound/light that is due to the relative motion of the source toward/away from the observer
How long is a day on Mercury?
176 Earth days
What is the Caloris Basin found on the planet of Mercury?
Large Impact Crater
The planet Mercury is the ______ planet in our solar system
Smallest yet second most dense
The side of Mercury that faces the Sun experiences temps near 427 degrees Celsius, while the other side that does NOT face the Sun experiences temps as low as -173 degrees Celsius. Why is this?
Mercury has no atmosphere
What are the cliffs on Mercury called?
Scarps
Mercury's orbit is _________
More elliptical than Earth's
An unusual hilly formation on the opposite side of the planet from Caloris Basin is known as?
Jumbled Terrain
How long is a day on Venus?
243 Earth Days
The weather on Venus can be best described as:
Constant cloud over
The atmosphere of Venus is mostly composed of what?
Carbon dioxide
What is the largest mountain on Venus?
Maxwell Montes
Unlike other planets, Venus rotates on its axis in a direction _____ to its motion around the sun.
opposite
Why is Venus much hotter than Mercury?
Because of the greenhouse gasses within the atmosphere
What mountain on Earth has the highest altitude, from base to peak?
Hawaii
How much oxygen is Earth's atmosphere composed of?
21%
Which two elements make up the Earth's atmosphere?
Nitrogen and oxygen
What causes Earth to have electromagnetic fields?
Electric currents in the two regions that make up the Earth's core
Which planet is the largest Terrestrial Planet?
Earth
What type of waves have scientists used in order to learn about Earth's interior?
Seismic waves
The moon's mass is roughly 1.2% the mass of the Earth, true or false?
True
What is the moon's gravity in proportion to Earth's gravity?
1/6
Why is the moon's tidal force about twice as strong as the sun's?
The moon is so much closer to earth than the sun
The moon was formed from...
The debris from a collision b/n Earth and the protoplanet
Who first took step on the Moon?
Neil Armstrong
What % of sunlight does the moon reflect?
7%
The Galilean moons are the ______ moons of Jupiter
Four largest
How long is Jupiter's rotational period?
10 hours
What is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter?
An enormous hurrican
Increasing their distance from Jupiter, what order are the Galilean moons in?
Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
How big is Jupiter's mass in comparison to the Sun?
One thousandth
What is the atmosphere of Jupiter primarily made up of?
Hydrogen
Saturn's rings are composed of:
Small, icy debris that was caught in the orbit of Saturn and eventually created a ring shape
How many main groups of rings does Saturn have?
7
What elements are the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn primarily composed of?
Hydrogen and helium
Aside from the heat remaining from the planet's formation, what is the name for the process that generates heat on Saturn?
Helium precipitation
What creates Saturn's Rings?
Satellites of Saturn ripped apart
What speed do the fastest winds reach on Saturn?
1650 km/hr
What is the ocean of Saturn's moon Titan composed of?
Ethane and Methane
Which planet is named after a Greek god instead of a Roman one?
Uranus
How long does it take Neptune to complete one orbit around the Sun?
164 years
Who is credited with the discovery of Uranus?
William Herschel
Which of the following planets has a 90 degree tilt?
Uranus
Why do Uranus and Neptune have a blue-green color?
Methane
Which planet has a great dark spot, similar to Jupiter's great red spot?
Neptune
Which one of the officially recognized dwarf planets is NOT located in the outer solar system?
Ceres
How was the category of dwarf planets created?
Pluto did not fit well into the definition of other planets and many other objects like Pluto were found
How many moons does Pluto have?
5
What is the name of Pluto's largest moon?
Charon
Now that pLuto is no longer included as a planet in the solar system, how many planets are there in the Solar System?
8
What is one use for the WISE telescope?
Sky surveys
How are comets formed?
By the collapse of a giant, diffuse cloud of gas and dust about 4.6 Billion years ago
HR Diagram
Where is the main sequence on an H-R Diagram?
Line that curves through the middle
Where is the yellow giant phase (Horizontal Branch) on the H-R Diagram?
In b/n Red Giant and Blue Giant in the upper portion
Where is the Red Giant Region on the H-R Diagram?
Upper right portion
Where is the white dwarf region on the H-R Diagram?
Lower left portion
Where are high mass stars on the main sequence on the H-R diagram?
On the upper portion of the line
Where are the low mass stars on the main sequence on the HR diagram?
On the lower portion of the line
Where are the red dwarfs on the HR diagram?
On the lower right
Evolution of a LOW mass star
Main Sequence
Red Giant
Horizontal Branch/Yellow Giant
Asymptotic Giant Branch
Planetary Nebula
White Dwarf
Main Sequence Star
1. Fusion
2. HR Diagram location
1. Hydrogen-Helium
2. On the main line
Red Giant
1. Fusion
2. HR Diagram location
1. NO fusion
2. Upper right
Horizontal Branch/Yellow Giant
1. Fusion
2. HR Diagram location
1. Helium-Carbon
2. In between Red Giant and Blue Giant in upper portion
Asymptotic Giant Branch
1. Fusion
2. HR Diagram location
1. NO fusion
2. Upper right, above the Red Giant earlier
Planetary Nebula
1. Fusion
2. HR Diagram location
1. NO fusion
2. Same as Asymptotic Giant Branch
...Upper right, above the Red Giant earlier
White Dwarf
1. Fusion
2. HR Diagram location
1. NO fusion
2. Bottom left
What is the life cycle of a high mass star?
-Same as Low mass... but instead of turning into a white dwarf it fuses in the core until it obtains an iron core
-Results in Type II Supernova & then into blackhole or neutron star
Planetary Nebula
-LOW mass star explosion
-When gravity is too much for hydrostatic equilibrium to overcome
-Results in white dwarf
-It represents the expanding shell of gas around white dwarf
Nova
-Occurs when a white dwarf fusing with a dwarf star (binary relationship)
-Result of an explosion on surface of white dwarf
-White dwarf pulls mass off neighbor, causing mass to increase over Chandrasekhar Limit
-Brightness increases drastically at first but then returns to normality
Low Mass Star
<8-10 Solar masses

Sun-Like Stars... -->planetary nebula -->white dwarf
High Mass Star
>8-10

Supernova (Type II) -->neutron star or black hole