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33 terms

Ancient India Chapters 14-17

Important terms for Mohenjo Daro,Hinduism, Buddhism and the Maurya Empire.
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Govt./Organization in Mohenjo Daro
Citadel/Granary/System of Weights/Organized streets and housing/sewer system
Culture in Mohenjo Daro
Great Bath/stone seals/games (dice, balls, board games)/clay models
Aryans
Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Indus Valley and brought elements of what would be Hinduism
Sanskrit
Written language developed by the Aryans
Vedas
Four collections of sacred writings produced by the Aryans during an early stage of their settlement in India
Sacred Cow
Animal revered in India and provider of dairy products, manure (for farming or fuel) and leather
Varna
The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
Caste
Highly organized and rigid social class system in which people are expected to stay within their own social group
Karma
Principle in which the deeds one does affects what happens to one's soul after death
Dharma
In Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
Samsara
The endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth
Yoga
A system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind
Brahman
Hindu name for a supreme power, or a divine force, which is greater than all other deities (gods).
Brahma
The creator god shown with four heads
Shiva
The destroyer god and father of Ganesha
Vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world (shown as being blue)
Ganesha
Elephant-headed god who is the remover of obstacles
Pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Siddhartha Gautama
Sheltered prince of India that wondered beyond the castle walls and saw suffering - became The Buddha
Buddha
"Awakened one." Siddhartha Gautama and all others who have experienced enlightenment but, motivated by compassion, stop short of entering nirvana so as to help others achieve it.
Three forms of suffering
Old age, sickness and death
Ascetic
Practicing self-denial; avoiding physical pleasures and comforts such as possessions, fine clothes, money and shelter
Nirvana
In Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment
Bodhi Tree
The tree under which Sidartha Gautama achieved enlightenment.
Middle Way
Basic Buddhist teaching of the Eightfold Path; it advises people to live in moderation,and avoid the extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvana
Four Noble Truths
The central teachings of Buddhism: to live is to suffer, suffering is caused by desire, the end of suffering can be achieved,and the solution is the Noble Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering
Sangha
The Buddhist community of monks and nuns; one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism.
Reincarnation
The Hindu or Buddhist belief that a person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
Mauryas
First family to unify India
Ashoka
Mauryan king who embraced Buddhism
Edict
A command that is obeyed like a law
Four goals of Ashoka's edicts
Promote Buddhist values such as kindness and nonviolence
Promote welfare such as good health, clean water and food
Promote justice and describe way that people were to be treated
Promote security from the Maurya's enemies