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Almost half the birds in the yard were brown cardinals and the rest were bright red cardinals, so Jimmy perceived them as two distinct groups of birds. This best illustrates the principle of


As compared to women, men are typically

more socially independent and less interested in religion

Some participants in a subliminal persuasion experiment thought that they were receiving subliminal affirmations of their self-esteem when in reality they were receiving subliminal memory-enhancement instructions. These individuals subsequently demonstrated

an erroneous belief that their self-esteem had improved

When visually deprived infant monkeys were first allowed to see, they could not visually distinguish

circles from squares

The Gestalt principles of proximity and similarity refer to ways in which we

organize stimuli into coherent groups

Andre claims that he can make a broken watch begin to run again simply by entering a state of intense mental concentration. Andre is claiming to possess the power of


Collectivist cultures

give priority to the goals of their groups, value the maintenence of social harmony, and foster social interdependence

Studies of the visual cliff have provided evidence that much of depth perception is


If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates

natural selection

The receptors for taste are located in the

taste buds

Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand

the Moon illusion

One would not observe unusually high rates of divorce in cultures that promote


A random error in gene replication is known as a


Participants in one experiment felt more positively about people if their photographs had been associated with scenes of kittens rather than with scenes of werewolves. This study best illustrated

that information can be processed outside of conscious awareness

The impact of genes on observable traits can vary in different environments. Thus, genes are said to be


Damage to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is most likely to cause

conduction hearing loss

Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called


Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ________ for skunk odor than his parents have.

absolute threshold

When we are exposed to the narrow band of wavelengths visible to the human eye, we see a red object as red because it rejects waves of

red light

The term gestalt means


In a collectivist culture, individuals are likely to avoid

embarrasing other people

A person's sense of being male or female is his or her gender


Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.

independence; interdependence

Which theory suggests that large-fiber activity in the spinal cord can prevent pain signals from reaching the brain?

gate-control theory

Viewing the light reflected by any object relative to the light reflected by surrounding objects is most necessary for experiencing

lightness constancy

The brain's release of endorphins reduces


Wavelength is to ________ as ________ is to brightness.

hue; intensity

Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by

damage to the cochlea

The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called

perceptual adaptation

The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called


When researchers added a few drops of vinegar to a brand-name beer, the beer tasters disliked it only if they had been told they were drinking vinegar-laced beer. This best illustrates the impact of

perceptual set

Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a

perceptual set

Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?

dilation of the pupil

Chromosomes are located within human

bone cells

En route to the temporal lobe's auditory cortex, neural impulses from the auditory nerve are first relayed to the


Depth perception that uses information transmitted to only one eye depends on

monocular cues

Women and men are most likely to be attracted to strongly gender-typed mates in cultures characterized by

gender inequality

Which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation?

A trim female figure is imperceptibly flashed on the TV screen during an ad for a weight-reduction clinic.

Subliminal stimulation is

any sensory stimulation below an individual's absolute threshold for conscious perception. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual may process it, or flashed and then masked thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes, similarly masked by other stimuli, or recoreded backwards called backmasking.

When hearing the words "eel is on the wagon," you would likely perceive the first word as wheel." Given "eel is on the orange," you would likely perceive the first word as "peel." This context effect best illustrates the organizational principle of


Personal space refers to

the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people.

Which philosopher maintained that knowledge comes from inborn ways of organizing our sensory experiences?


Dr. Ross believes that principles of natural selection help explain why infants come to fear strangers about the time they become mobile. Dr. Ross is most likely a(n)

evolutionary psychologist

Mr. Watkins had been blind from birth. While corrective eye surgery enabled him to see, he was unable to visually distinguish a spoon from a key. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by


Damage to the fovea would have the GREATEST effect on

visual acuity

Behavior geneticists are most likely to use twin and adoption studies to assess

trait heritability

Molecular geneticists would be most interested in studying

chromosome segments

The greatest difficulty facing contemporary parapsychology is the

lack of a reproducible ESP phenomenon

Because Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, Ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the organizational principle of


The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of

the lowest pitches

The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

natural selection

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