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Unit 3 Psychology Flashcards

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Almost half the birds in the yard were brown cardinals and the rest were bright red cardinals, so Jimmy perceived them as two distinct groups of birds. This best illustrates the principle of
similarity
As compared to women, men are typically
more socially independent and less interested in religion
Some participants in a subliminal persuasion experiment thought that they were receiving subliminal affirmations of their self-esteem when in reality they were receiving subliminal memory-enhancement instructions. These individuals subsequently demonstrated
an erroneous belief that their self-esteem had improved
When visually deprived infant monkeys were first allowed to see, they could not visually distinguish
circles from squares
The Gestalt principles of proximity and similarity refer to ways in which we
organize stimuli into coherent groups
Andre claims that he can make a broken watch begin to run again simply by entering a state of intense mental concentration. Andre is claiming to possess the power of
psychokinesis
Collectivist cultures
give priority to the goals of their groups, value the maintenence of social harmony, and foster social interdependence
Studies of the visual cliff have provided evidence that much of depth perception is
innate
If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates
natural selection
The receptors for taste are located in the
taste buds
Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand
the Moon illusion
One would not observe unusually high rates of divorce in cultures that promote
collectivism
A random error in gene replication is known as a
mutation
Participants in one experiment felt more positively about people if their photographs had been associated with scenes of kittens rather than with scenes of werewolves. This study best illustrated
that information can be processed outside of conscious awareness
The impact of genes on observable traits can vary in different environments. Thus, genes are said to be
self-regulating
Damage to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is most likely to cause
conduction hearing loss
Our sense of the position and movement of individual body parts is called
kinesthesis
Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ________ for skunk odor than his parents have.
absolute threshold
When we are exposed to the narrow band of wavelengths visible to the human eye, we see a red object as red because it rejects waves of
red light
The term gestalt means
whole
In a collectivist culture, individuals are likely to avoid
embarrasing other people
A person's sense of being male or female is his or her gender
identity
Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________.
independence; interdependence
Which theory suggests that large-fiber activity in the spinal cord can prevent pain signals from reaching the brain?
gate-control theory
Viewing the light reflected by any object relative to the light reflected by surrounding objects is most necessary for experiencing
lightness constancy
The brain's release of endorphins reduces
pain
Wavelength is to ________ as ________ is to brightness.
hue; intensity
Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by
damage to the cochlea
The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called
perceptual adaptation
The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called
sensation
When researchers added a few drops of vinegar to a brand-name beer, the beer tasters disliked it only if they had been told they were drinking vinegar-laced beer. This best illustrates the impact of
perceptual set
Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a
perceptual set
Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?
dilation of the pupil
Chromosomes are located within human
bone cells
En route to the temporal lobe's auditory cortex, neural impulses from the auditory nerve are first relayed to the
thalamus
Depth perception that uses information transmitted to only one eye depends on
monocular cues
Women and men are most likely to be attracted to strongly gender-typed mates in cultures characterized by
gender inequality
Which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation?
A trim female figure is imperceptibly flashed on the TV screen during an ad for a weight-reduction clinic.
Subliminal stimulation is
any sensory stimulation below an individual's absolute threshold for conscious perception. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual may process it, or flashed and then masked thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes, similarly masked by other stimuli, or recoreded backwards called backmasking.
When hearing the words "eel is on the wagon," you would likely perceive the first word as wheel." Given "eel is on the orange," you would likely perceive the first word as "peel." This context effect best illustrates the organizational principle of
closure
Personal space refers to
the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people.
Which philosopher maintained that knowledge comes from inborn ways of organizing our sensory experiences?
Kant
Dr. Ross believes that principles of natural selection help explain why infants come to fear strangers about the time they become mobile. Dr. Ross is most likely a(n)
evolutionary psychologist
Mr. Watkins had been blind from birth. While corrective eye surgery enabled him to see, he was unable to visually distinguish a spoon from a key. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by
Locke
Damage to the fovea would have the GREATEST effect on
visual acuity
Behavior geneticists are most likely to use twin and adoption studies to assess
trait heritability
Molecular geneticists would be most interested in studying
chromosome segments
The greatest difficulty facing contemporary parapsychology is the
lack of a reproducible ESP phenomenon
Because Carmella, Jorge, and Gail were all sitting behind the same bowling lane, Ruth perceived that they were all members of the same bowling team. This best illustrates the organizational principle of
proximity
The frequency theory of hearing is better than place theory at explaining our sensation of
the lowest pitches
The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
natural selection