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Chapter 14: SELECTION & PLACEMENT
Terms in this set (44)
overall goal of an organizational selection system
a. To minimize error in choosing employees and to improve a company's competitive position.
two general models of employee selection
a. Person-Job Fit
b. Person-Organization Fit
the degree to which individuals are matched to the culture and values of the organization.
a. Person-Job Fit
job analysis identifies required individual competencies (KSAs) for job success.
organizational selection devices
reliability, validity, utility, generalizability, and legality
the degree to which a measure of physical or cognitive abilities or traits is free from random error.
: the extent to which a performance measure assesses all and only the relevant aspects of job performance.
the degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts.
the degree to which information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel.
all selection methods must conform to existing laws and legal precedents.
4. Explain the importance of reliability and validity in choosing and using selection devices.
a. Both reliability and validity are important in choosing and using selection devices because of the two determining the overall accuracy of the data provided by the performance measurements. Selection methods become essentially useless with an erratic and inconsistent degree of error from testing and even more so if multiple variables are tested at once while only one matters toward performance evaluations.
a dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate the qualifications of an applicant for employment.
i. The most widespread selection method.
ii. Unreliable, low in validity, and biased against of number of different groups.
method for getting background information on applicants before an interview.
i. Weak predictors of future success on the job.
ii. Low validity
c. Biological Data:
the evidence on the utility of biographical information collected directly from job applicants is more positive. The low cost of collecting the information increases utility.
d. Application Blanks:
Commonly used section included in applications that allow applicants to either enter personal information such as address, education, and employment information or to select from a list of option to answer preference, availability, and related questions.
e. Physical Ability Tests
Tests of physical abilities may be relevant not only to predicting performance by to predicting occupational injuries and disabilities as well. There are seven classes of tests in this area: muscular tension, muscular power, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, balance, and coordination.
i. These tests are likely to have adverse impact.
ii. Validities for these tests are strong.
f. Cognitive Ability Tests:
tests that include three dimensions: verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability.
i. Highly reliable commercial tests measuring these kinds of abilities are widely available, and they are generally valid predictors of job performance.
ii. The validity of the tests is related to the complexity of the job.
g. Personality Inventories
research suggests that there are five major dimensions of personality, known as the "Big Five": extroversion, adjustment, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
i. Although it is possible to find reliable, commercially available measures of each of these traits, the evidence for their validity and generalizability is mixed at best.
h. Work Samples:
attempt to stimulate the job in a pre-hiring context to observe how the applicant preforms in the simulated job.
i. Drawbacks: First, the nature of the tests are job-specific, so generalizability is low. Second, tests are generally expensive. Finally, these events tend to attract more male applicants than female.
i. Honesty Tests
: some tests directly emphasize questions dealing with past theft admissions or associations with people who stole from employees.
i. Validity studies suggest they can predict both theft and other disruptive behaviors.
j. Drug Tests:
tests should be conducted in an environment that is as unintrusive as possible, and results should be held in a strict confidence.
i. Controversies are not with their reliability and validity but whether they represent an invasion of privacy.
a dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate the applicant's qualifications for employment.
i. To increase an interview's utility:
1. Interviews should be structured, standardized, and focused on goals oriented to skills and observable behaviors.
2. Interviewers should be able to quantitatively rate each interview.
3. Interviewers should have a structured note-taking system that will aid recall to satisfying ratings.
ii. Assumptions of Interviews:
1. Situational Interview: confronts applicants on specific issues, questions, or problems likely to arise on the job.
a. Intentions predict behavior
b. How you say you will handle the situation is how you would actually do it.
2. Behavioral Interview
a. The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior
Allow verification of information obtained through other sources
i. Provide richer information about applicant.
ii. All statements should be based on documented, verifiable behaviors.
iii. Negative information opens reference-giver to legal liability (defamation).
iv. References are subject to legal challenge.
v. Must evaluate legal consequences of not obtaining references (negligent hiring).
vi. Issues with Reference Checks:
1. Most significant problems limit reliability and validity
a. Different information is obtained for different applicants (not all references provide the same type of information)
b. Reference providers tend to provide similar information in their references for different individuals
c. References, biographical data, and applications
gather background information on candidates.
d. Physical Ability Tests
are relevant for predicting job performance, occupational injuries and disabilities.
Physical Ability Tests Two Questions to Ask:
1. Is physical ability essential to perform the job?
2. Is it mentioned prominently enough in the job description?
Physical Ability Tests measure
1. Muscular tension, power, and endurance
2. Cardiovascular endurance
e. Work Sample:
require the applicant to perform tasks that are actually part of the work required on the job.
i. Ex: Map reading test for a traffic controller.
f. Cognitive Ability Test
Abilities involving thinking, perception, memory, reasoning, verbal ability, mathematical ability, and expression of ideas.
ii. Many common tests available.
1. Wonderlic Personnel Test
iii. General mental/cognitive ability.
1. Valid for most jobs (r>.50)
2. More valid for medium and high complexity jobs
iv. Most show adverse impact.
i. 3 Dimensions Cognitive Ability Tests:
1. Verbal Comprehension: a person's capacity to understand and use written and spoken language.
2. Quantitative Ability: speed and accuracy with which one can solve arithmetic problems.
3. Reasoning Ability: a person's capacity to invent solutions to diverse problems.
g. Bio Data
are typically more subjective than items on applications, and they are usually longer. BioData questionnaires are developed empirically.
ii. In general, people are willing to describe their behaviors.
iii. Many questions do not have face validity.
g. Big Data Based on the assumptions that
1. Past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior
2. The items provide indirect measurements of an applicant's motivational characteristics
h. Honesty Tests:
i. Based on characteristics of the "typical" employee-thief:
1. More tempted to steal
2. Engages in common rationalizations for theft
3. Would recommend lighter punishment for thieves
4. Often think about theft-related behavior
5. Think others steal more than they actually do
6. Show loyalty to other thieves
7. Vulnerable to peer pressure to steal
i. Drug Tests:
drug-use tests tend to be reliable and valid
ii. Tests should be administered systematically to all applicants applying for the same job.
iii. Testing is likely to be more defensible with safety hazards associated with failure to perform.
iv. Test results should be reported to applicants, who should have an avenue to appeal.
i. Major controversies about drug tests include
1. Is it an invasion of privacy?
2. Is it an unreasonable search and seizure?
3. Is it a violation of due process?
Ethical considerations such as bias, legality, and possibility of discrimination are important when utilizing the different selection devices.
bias, legality, and possibility of discrimination
Giving preference toward a certain trait that does not relate to job performance
Selection device does not infringe on individuals rights or otherwise unlawful
Devices disregards individuals based on factors like age, sex, and race.
behavioral (experience-based) job interviews
i. Motivating Employees: "Think about an instance when you had to motivate an employee to perform a task that he or she disliked but that you needed to have done. How did you handle that situation?"
ii. Resolving Conflict: "What was the biggest difference of opinion you ever had with a co-worker? How did you resolve that situation?"
iii. Overcoming resistance to Change: "What was the hardest change you ever had to bring about in a past job, and what did you do to get the people around you to change their thoughts or behaviors?"
situational (future-oriented) job interviews
i. Motivating Employees: "Suppose you were working with an employee who you knew greatly disliked performing a particular task. You needed to get this task completed, however, and this person was the only one available to do it. What would you do to motivate that person?"
ii. Resolving Conflict: "Imagine that you and a co-worker disagree about the best way to handle an absenteeism problem with another member of your team. How would you resolve that situation?"
iii. Overcoming resistance to Change: "Suppose you had an idea for change in work procedures that would enhance quality, but some members of your work group were hesitant to make the change. What would you do in that situation?"
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