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Unit 2 Psychology Flashcards

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The thalamus serves as a
sensory switchboard
Teaching a patient to regain use of an impaired limb by limiting his or her use of the good limb is called
constraint-induced therapy
An air pump that keeps the sleeper's airway open and breathing regular is often prescribed for serious cases of
sleep apnea
According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to
its underlying but censored meaning
The function of dendrites is to
receive incoming signals from other neurons
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that
individuals who are given morphine for pain relief SELDOM develop the irresistible cravings of an addict
Mark's abuse of alcohol and other addictive drugs is influenced by genetic factors, by the ready availability of drugs in Mark's neighborhood, and by Mark's failure to accurately assess the risks associated with drug usage. An understanding of Mark's difficulties within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by
a biopsychosocial approach
José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of
endorphins
Which of the following drugs is classified as a stimulant?
nicotine
Prolonged and excessive drinking can shrink the brain most intensely in ________ who have ________ of a stomach enzyme that digests alcohol
women; less
Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?
REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound
Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands are called
hormones
Jason's intensely uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to a reduction in his body's normal production of
endorphins
Mr. Oates always sleeps restlessly, snorting and gasping throughout the night. It is most likely that Mr. Oates suffers from
sleep apnea
People who can hear usually process spoken language with the ________ hemisphere. Deaf people usually process sign language with the ________ hemisphere.
left; left
You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates
selective attention
A brief 15- to 30-minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated depression is most closely associated with the use of
cocaine
Direct stimulation of the motor cortex would most likely result in
movement of the mouth and lips
A PET scan of a sleeping person's brain reveals increased activity in the amygdala of the limbic system. This most likely indicates that the sleeper
is in REM sleep
Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________.
serial processing; parallel processing
The pop-out phenomenon illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger
selective attention
The master gland of the endocrine system is the
pituitary gland
Research participants picked one of two photographed faces as more attractive. When researchers cleverly switched the photos, participants readily explained why they preferred the face they had actually rejected. Their behavior illustrated
choice blindness
An axon is
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
Cocaine and crack produce a euphoric rush by
blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
90 minutes
The pituitary gland releases a growth hormone during
slow-wave sleep
How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on
the dosage and form in which the drug is taken, the user's expectations and personality, and the situation in which the drug is taken
The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of
Stage 1 sleep
The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.
seeing; hearing
As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark, and handsome gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge's account represents the ________ content of her dream.
manifest
After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he could no longer figure out how to find his way around his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his
association areas
Females with a history of physical abuse are at ________ risk for substance addiction. Those with a history of eating disorders are at risk for ________ substance addiction.
increased; increased
Josef, a high school student, tells his therapist that he has had a recurring dream in which he hunts and kills a ferocious tiger. The therapist explains that the dream reflects Josef's unresolved feelings of hostility toward his father. According to Freud, the therapist is revealing the possible ________ content of Josef's dream.
latent
One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by
distracting attention
REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because
our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.
Alana suffered a brain disease that destroyed major portions of her temporal lobes. Alana is most likely to suffer some loss of
auditory perception
François was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance their footwork and endurance on the playing field. Which of the following drugs were the players most likely using?
amphetamines
After 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in
mental processes
African-American teens have ________ rates of smoking and ________ rates of cocaine use than other U.S. teens.
lower; lower
The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by accelerating the release of
acetylcholine
Mice with ________ levels of ________ are especially likely to be attracted to alcohol.
low; NPY
Circadian rhythms are the
regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour schedule
Which part of a neuron is often encased by a fatty myelin sheath?
axon
The depolarization of an axon is most likely to occur when
positively charged ions rush into the axon
Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through
REM sleep
Physical pain and intense cravings indicate
physical dependence
With the approach of night, our body temperatures begin to drop. This best illustrates the dynamics of the
circadian rhythm
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
dopamine
Which of the following preventive measures would have the greatest impact on average life expectancy?
eliminating smoking