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Genomics Ex 2 Set 3
Terms in this set (14)
Conservative site-specific recombination
Recombination occurs at specific sites, within short sequence identity.
Strand exchange occurs by precise breakage and joining events.
No synthesis or loss of DNA sequences occur.
Recombination is reciprocal. Non-conservative or transpositional
No homology exists between the recombination sites.
DNA synthesis accompanies breakage and joining events.
Recombination is non-reciprocal.
recombination that occurs in non-germ cells (i.e., it does not occur during meiosis); most commonly used to refer to recombination in the immune system.
•Recombination systems have been adapted for experimental use.
pairing of two homologous chromosomes during meiosis
•Chromosomes must synapse (pair) for chiasmata to form where crossing-over occurs.
each of two identical copies of a replicated chromosome; this term is used as long as the two copies remain linked at the centromere.
-Sister chromatids separate during anaphase in mitosis or anaphase II in meiosis.
the structure containing all four chromatids (two representing each homolog) at the start of meiosis
the morphological structure of synapsed chromosomes
a pair of DNA duplexes that are connected together through a reciprocal exchange of genetic material
•The synaptonemal complex is a protein structure that forms between two homologous chromosomes during meiosis and that is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination.
•The synaptonemal complex is a tripartite structure consisting of two parallel lateral regions and a central element.
•Three specific components of the synaptonemal complex have been characterized: SC protein-1 (SYCP1), SC protein-2 (SYCP2), and SC protein-3 (SYCP3).
double-strand break repair (DSBR)
model of recombination is initiated by making a double-strand break in one (recipient) DNA duplex and is relevant for meiotic and mitotic homologous recombination.
•In 5 end resection, exonuclease action generates 3′-single-stranded ends that invade the other (donor) duplex.
Break-induced replication (BIR)
is initiated by a one-ended double-strand break.
•BIR at repeated sequences can result in translocations.
the segment of DNA that is common to the attachment sites on both the phage lambda and bacterial genomes
-It is the location of the recombination event that allows phage lambda to integrate.
•The phage is excised from the chromosome by recombination between the sites at the end of the linear prophage.
•Phage lambda int codes for an integrase that catalyzes the integration reaction.
enzyme that catalyzes site-specific recombination.
•Phage lambda integrates into the bacterial chromosome by recombination between a site on the phage and the att site on the E. coli chromosome.
General DNA Repair Mechanisms
Direct reversal -
A.specific DNA damage is directly reversed by some enzymes.
B.Widespread in nature, all but placental mammals.
Excision repair mechanisms - to remove and replace material
A.Base excision repair
B.Nucleotide excision repair
Other types of DNA repair Mechanisms.
Recombination-repair system - to retrieve an undamaged copy which is used to replace a damaged duplex sequence.
The non-homologous end-joining mechanism - to rejoin broken double-stranded ends.
DNA polymerases resynthesize stretches of replacement DNA.
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