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Chapter 4 Mastery Flashcards

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According to Plomin and Crabbe (2000), the most powerful potential for DNA is to predict ______ so that steps can be taken to prevent problems before they happen.
risk
You are in charge of hiring a cruise-ship social director and you want to pick someone who is very outgoing. Unfortunately, you only have information about the siblings of the potential candidates. Given what we know about the genetic transmission of outgoingness, which of the following candidates would you choose?
the candidate whose identical twin is outgoing
Your sister has a 3-month-old baby girl who is always cheerful, relaxed, and predictable in terms of sleeping and eating. The baby's temperament is most likely that of a(n):
easy baby
Your professor suggests that the increasing problem of obesity in Western cultures might be attributable to our inherited predisposition to love the taste of sweets and fats. Although these foods were difficult for our ancestors to find, they helped them to survive famines. Now, these foods are easily available and Westerners are eating too much of them. What field does this theory belong to?
evolutionary psychology
Bacteria that resist a hospital's antibiotics rapidly multiply as other bacteria die off. This best illustrates:
natural selection
Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to:
genetic predispositions
Though you beg and plead, you have zero success in coaxing your preschooler to eat broccoli. You might try to use peer influence by:
asking his daycare center to serve broccoli and seating him with classmates who like to eat it
Because of cataracts, your neighbor was deprived of visual experiences during early childhood. Last year, her vision was restored by surgery, but she is having difficulty in dealing with the visual world. This is probably because:
brain cells normally devoted to vision died or were diverted to other uses
When scientists compared the brains of rats raised in an enriched environment with the brains of rats raised in an impoverished environment, the rats raised in an enriched environment had:
a larger number of synapses
Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with:
collectivism
In some countries, toddlers in strollers are routinely parked outside of shops or restaurants, while parents do business within. But in the U.S. this behavior is not acceptable and may even lead to criminal charges. This is an example of:
a difference in cultural norms
Standing at a distance from your professor, but close to your friend is an example of:
personal space
When Sara imitates her mother, carefully wrapping and setting out presents for the holiday celebration, she is praised and given holiday cookies. Sara's learning of gender-linked behaviors is best explained by:
social learning theory
_________________ assumes that children learn gender-linked behaviors by observing and imitating others and through the rewards and punishments they receive for their imitation.
social learning theory
Jake enjoys hunting, fishing, playing football, and wrestling more than the other boys, while Susan enjoys wearing fancy clothes, perfumes, and shopping more than girls her own age. We can say that Jake is exhibiting more _____________ traits, while Susan is exhibiting more _____________ traits as they are highly gender typed.
masculine; feminine