Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division 1
This card set goes with the topic cell growth and division. This set covers the cell cycle, mitosis, cytokinesis, and uncontrolled cell growth
Terms in this set (66)
What are three stages of interphase?
G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase
What happens during G1 phase?
The cell grows
What happens during S phase?
What happens during G2 phase?
Preparation for mitosis
That are the four stages of mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase (PMAT)
During what phase of mitosis do the chromosomes condense, the centrioles separate, the spindle begins to form and the nuclear membrane breaks down?
The phase of mitosis in which microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle is
During what phase of mitosis to the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell?
During what phase of mitosis do the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and nuclear membranes form around each group?
The division of the cytoplasm is called _______________.
The two daughter cell created through the process of mitosis and cytokinesis are genetically ________________ to each other.
cytokinesis (two daughter cells)
replicated chromosome (two sister chromatids attached by a centromere)
Uncontrolled cell growth
family of closely related proteins which regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
an abnormal mass of tissue that can live and reproduce itself, but performs no service to the body
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.
treatment of disease with chemicals. Used a lot in treating cancer.
the use of radiation to destroy cancer cells
What are two reasons why cells divide rather than continue to grow indefinitely?
The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA & the more trouble the cell has moving nutrients and wastes across the cell membrane.
what determines the rate at which food and
oxygen in a cell are used up and waste products produced.
The cell's volume
How can you obtain a cell's ratio of surface area to volume?
Divide the surface area by the volume
what happens to a cell's ratio of surface area to
volume as the cell's volume increases more rapidly than its surface area.
What is cell division?
the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.
How does cell division solve the problem of increasing size?
it reduces cell volume.
Chromosomes are not _________ in most cells except during cell division.
When chromosomes become visible at the beginning of cell division, what does each chromosome consist of?
two identical sister chromatids.
Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the
The period of growth in between cell divisions is called
What is the cell cycle?
the series of events that cells go through as they grow
The division of the cell nucleus during the M phase of the cell cycle is called
What happens during the G1 phase?
Cells do most of their growing, increasing in size and
synthesizing new proteins and organelles.
What happens during the S phase?
Chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA
molecules takes place. Also, key proteins associated with the chromosomes are synthesized.
What happens during the G2 phase?
Many of the organelles and molecules required for cell
division are produced.
What's the name for the two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope at the beginning of prophase.
What is the spindle?
The spindle is a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes.
What is cytokinesis?
the division of the cytoplasm itself
How does cytokinesis occur in most animal cells?
The cell membrane is drawn inward until the cytoplasm is pinched into two nearly equal parts.
what forms midway between the divided
nucleus during cytokinesis in plant cells.
What happens to the cells at the edges of an injury when a cut in the skin or a break in a bone occurs?
they are stimulated to divide rapidly
What happens to the rapidly dividing cells when the healing process nears completion?
The rate of cell division slows down, controls on growth are restored, and everything returns to normal.
What do cyclins regulate?
the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells.
What are internal regulators?
They are proteins that respond to events inside the cell.
what does external regulators do
direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle, include growth factors, prevent excessive cell growth and keep the tissues of the body from disrupting each other.
What is cancer?
a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth.
Cancer cells don't respond to signals that regulate
Cancer cells form masses of cells called
Cancer cells break loose and spread throughout the
Cancer is a disease of the
The final phase of mitosis is
The division of a cell's cytoplasm is called
At the beginning of cell division, each chromosome consists of two sister
The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells is called
A tiny structure located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear
envelope is a(an)
A disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth is called
The area where a pair of chromotids is attached is the
The division of the cell nucleus is called
A protein that regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells is
The series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide is known as the
A fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the
chromosomes is a(an)