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Treaty of Kanagawa 1854
Commodore Matthew Perry with top shogun in Japan; Japan opens ports to American ships
"Seward's Folly" 1867
U.S. Secretary of State, William H. Seward, buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million; aka "Seward's Icebox"
Alfred Thayer Mahan
U.S. navy flag officer; geo-strategist; "sea power" idea that countries with greater naval power have greater world impact; influenced navy strategies across world
"extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy"; extreme nationalism; Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
journalism that has catchy headlines but lacks legitimate research; exaggeration; sensationalize; Pulitzer and Hearst
William Randolph Hearst
newspaper publisher; yellow journalism; democrat in House of Representatives; political influence and public opinion which helped start war with Spain in 1898
Spanish-American War 1898
American intervention of Cuban independence from Spain because Spanish misrule in Cuba; American attacks on Pacific Islands (Philippines) mysterious sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana; De Lome Letter criticizing McKinley; De lome was Spanish ambassador to U.S.; Teddy Roosevelt fights in Cuba after resigning as assistant secretary of the Navy; "That splendid little war"
De Lome Letter
De Lome was Spanish Ambassador to U.S. and letter criticizing President McKinley was intercepted
"Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain"
mysterious sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana Bay; Teddy Roosevelt angered; yellow journalism coined the phrase
U.S. military involvement status;U.S. cannot annex Cuba; leave control of island to its people
Queen of Hawaii before it was taken over by U.S. sugar planters; taken down; resisted U.S. forces
Filipino general, politician, and independence leader; Philippine's 1st president; key role in the independence movement resisting American occupation
"White Man's Burden"
reason for America becoming imperialist power; Social Darwinist thinking; U.S. burden to help everyone else
1898; opposed expansion; battle American annexation of Philippines as an insular area; members include Jane Addams, Andrew Carnegie; Samuel Gompers; John Dewey; Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), William James
1901-1903; constitutional rights not automatically extended to territorial possessions; Congress had power to decide these rights; import duties laid down by Foraker Act are legal
Platt Amendment 1903
replaced Teller Amendment; Cuba could not enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence; U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient independent government; Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to U.S. for naval and coaling station; Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt
Open Door Policy
Secretary John Hay; give all nations equal access to trade in China; guaranteed that China would not be taken over by any one foreign power
1900; Peaceful Harmonious Fists; "55 Days at Peking"; pro-nationalist movement in response to the spheres of influence in China; foreign powers put down the rebellion
"Big Stick" Policy
"Speak softly and carry a big stick"; Teddy Roosevelt; negotiating peacefully but having the "big stick" threat behind it
Roosevelt Corollary 1905
To Monroe Doctrine; international police power; U.S. had right to intervene to "stabilize" economic affairs of Caribbean and Central America if they could not pay international debts
1850 Clayton-Bolwer Treaty; 1901 Hay-Paunceforte Treaty; Philippe Bunau-Varilla agent provocateur; Dr. Walter Reed; Colonel W. Goethals; For economic purposes (trade); Panama was part of Columbia; Panamanian nationalists with U.S. backing take over Panama in "bloodless revolution"; U.S. treaty establishes right to build canal and have power over canal zone; Panamanians resented this
Gentlemen's Agreement 1907
U.S. does not segregate schools in San Francisco (white and Asians); agreement with Japanese; U.S. would not impose restrictions on Japanese immigration; Japan would not allow further emigration to U.S.; reduce tensions between nations; never ratified by Congress
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
Ended Russo-Japanese War; marked emergence of new era of diplomatic negotiations; President Teddy Roosevelt invited people of both Russia and Japan to Portsmouth, New Hampshire to make treaty; Roosevelt awarded Nobel Peace Prize
Taft; improve financial opportunities for American business; use private capital to further U.S. interests overseas; U.S. should create stability and order abroad that best promotes American commercial interests
Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.
U.S. politician; Republican; sought to ensure African American voter registration and fair elections; "large policy" by which economic interests would take 2nd place to "national honor" questions
Jones Act 1916
Philippine Autonomy Act; first formal and official declaration of U.S. commitment to grant independence to Philippines; gave full territorial status to Puerto Rico; removed tariff duties of Puerto Rican goods coming into U.S.; Puerto Ricans elected their own legislators and governor to enforce local laws; Puerto Ricans could NOT vote in U.S. presidential elections; resident commissioner was sent to Washington D.C. to vote for Puerto Ricans in the House
Woodrow Wilson; U.S. should be conscience of the world; spread democracy; promote peace; condemn colonialism; influence and control other countries through economic pressure; only supporting Latin American governments that were democratic or supporting U.S. interests
Tampico Incident 1914
U.S. sailors and Mexican land forces loyal to General Victoriano Huerta; led to breakdown of diplomatic relations and to the occupation of Veracruz for over 6 months; Admiral Henry T. Mayo of U.S. demanded formal apology from Huerta, who gave it but did not raise U.S. flag or give gun salute
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
General in Mexico; civil war against Venustiano Carranza; U.S. aided Carranza because Carranza was deemed less radical; Villa defeated; then went on raid on Columbus, New Mexico
John J. Pershing
Wilson sent this Brigadier General to rack down Pancho Villa; 300 miles into Mexico unable to catch Villa; Mexicans feared Pershing would occupy northern Mexico; Wilson refuses to withdraw troops; January 1917 Wilson recalls troops and recognizes Carranza government
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