APUSH Unit 10

Chapter 39
The Stormy Sixties, 1960-68
Lyndon Baines Johnson
Kennedy's VP;"Great Society"; , 1963-1969 Democrat; 36
Robert F. Kennedy
Presidential election in 1968
Robert McNamara
Secretary of defense during Vietnam
Lee Harvey Oswald
assassin of JFK
Barry Goldwater
1964 election, Republican s. LBJ
Stokely Carmichael
Black Nationalist; coined the phrase "Black Power"; violence
J. William Fulbright
head of Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Criticized Vietnam war
Eugene McCarthy
Democratic party in the 1968 election
Hubert Humphrey
Democratic party in the 1968 election
Richard Nixon
Republican, 37th, Vietnamization; Detente; Watergate;
George Wallace
1968 presidential election
Flexible Response
Policy of having the option of using either nuclear or conventional forces in responce to a threat
Credibility Gap
The gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support
New Frontier
JFK; 1960 election; fix the economy and reform education, health care, and civil rights.
Peace Corps
send volunteers to help developing nations;JFK
Vienna Summit
Kennedy met with Soviet Premier Khrushchev
Trade Expansion Act
authorized tariff cuts of up to 50% to promote trade with Common Market countries
Viet Cong
North Vietnam forces
Alliance for Progress
offered assistance to Latin American countries
Bay of Pigs
JFK; cuban rebels fight and lose
Great Society
LBJ; Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
presidential authority to "take all necessary measures" to stop foreign agression
Civil Rights Act of 1964
no discrimination by employers; Gov. enforcement in public places
Cuban Missile Crisis
really really really tense time in Cold War; U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba;JFK demanded their removal, announced a naval blockade of the island; USSR removes them after a week
Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty
ended the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere
March on Washington
1963; support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. MLK gave "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people
24th Amendment
Eliminated the poll tax
Voting Rights Act
1965; right to vote for ALL Americans; provided for federal intervention
Operation Rolling Thunder
bombing campaign over North Vietnam; lots and lots o' bombs
Pueblo Incident
North Korean capture of a US Navy spy ship; crew imprisoned
Tet Offensive
Viet Cong huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet); month of fighting and thousands of casualties;
Chapter 40
The Stalemated Seventies, 1968-1980
Henry Kissinger
meet secretly on Nixon's behalf with NV officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam; Detente
Sam Ervin
chairman of the Senate Select Committee to Investigate Presidential Campaign Practices during Watergate
Spiro Agnew
Nixon's VP, resigned b/c Watergate
Daniel Ellsberg
1971; released the Pentagon Papers
Warren Burger
Supreme Court justice;Nixon;conservative but Roe vs. Wade.
George McGovern
democrat; 1972 election
John Dean
White House aide; testified during Watergate
Rachel Carson
Wrote Silent Spring; anti-pesticides
Gerald Ford
became president after Nixon resigned;38th; pardoned Nixon; end of US involvement in Vietnam
Jimmy Carter
Camp David Accords b/twn Israel and Eygpt; 39th; embargo on grain shipments, boycotted the 1980 Olympics, in response to USSR war in Afghanistan;
Shah of Iran
overthrown in 1979
Ayatollah Khomeini
religious leader; leader of Iran 1979; Iranian hostage crisis; Iran-Iraq War.
Leonid Brezhnev
after Khrushchev; leader of USSR 1964; forces in Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
relaxing of tensions; Nixon plays nicely with China and USSR
Revenue Sharing
share federal taxes with states
Executive Privilege
right of the president to withhold info from Congress; limited by U.S. v. Nixon
reduce US troops; more fighting for South Vietnamese troops
Nixon Doctrine
Vietnam War;US would honor existing commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars w/o American troops
My Lai Massacre
1968; troops killed innocent women and children in the village of My Lai
Cambodian Incursion
Nixon orders troops to invade Cambodia; po'd congress and everyone else
Kent State Killings
1970; police kill 4 students during a protest against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia w/o consulting Congress
26th Amendment
lowered the voting age to 18
Philadelphia Plan
required unions working for the feds. to establish "goals and timetables" for minority employees; affirmative action
Environmental Protection Agency
lower pollution; Nixon; tried to destroy Springfield
Pentagon Papers
secret government documents; revealed that the government had misled public about the vietnam war.
ABM Treaty
Detente treaty; limit antiballistic missiles
US and USSR limit both countries' nuclear weapons
"multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles designed to overcome any defense by 'saturating' it with large number of warheads"; in response to SALT
Southern Strategy
Watergate Scandal
republicans spying on democrats; paying bribes; using CIA, FBI, IRS; Nixon involved; lots of cover-up
committee for the reelection of something rather...; watergate
Enemies List
watergate; people republican's wanted "taken care of"
Saturday Night Massacre
dismissing of a lot of officials connected to Watergate
War Powers Act
Notify Congress w/thn 48 hours of deployment; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; limit presidential powers
Title IX
public schools/etc can't deny on basis of gender
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment; passed by Congress but never ratified; would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
Bakke case
affirmative action is constitutional
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks; Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced; Not passed by the Senate in retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan
Energy Crisis
B/c US backed Israel; OPEC embargos oil to US; gas prices soar
Helsinki Accords
Political/human rights agreement signed in Finland, by the USSR and other west European countries.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; limited oil supplies in 70s causing the energy crisis
Iranian Hostage Crisis
militants capture US embassy in Iran and hold hostages for like 3 years
Chapter 41
The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-2000
Edward Kennedy
lost Democratic primary of 1980
Ronald Reagan
40th; Moral Majority; Reagonomics; Great Communicator; 1981-1989
Sandra Day O'Connor
first female Supreme Court Justice; Reagan
George Herbert Walker Bush
41; Desert Storm; 1989-1993
Bill Clinton
1993-2001; 42nd; NAFTA; balanced federal budget; federal surplus;
George Walker Bush
2001-2009; 43rd president
John Anderson
independent; 1980 election
Anwar Sadat
Egyptian president who made peace with Israel
Mikhail Gorbachev
end to the Cold War; major domestic reforms; USSR
Walter Mondale
1984 election; democrat
Jerry Falwell
Leader of the Religious Right
Jesse Jackson
civil rights leader; 1988 election
Geraldine Ferraro
1984; first woman on a major-party presidential ticket;Walter Modale.
Boris Yetsin
president of Russia
Saddam Hussein
Iraq; invaded Kuwait
Norman Schwartzkopf
Operation Desert Storm
Clarence Thomas
2nd African American Supreme Court Justice; scandal on sexual harassment
Ross Perot
3rd party; 92 and 96
Hillary Rodham Clinton
headed a Task Force on National Health Care Reform; I love her pantsuits
Newt Gingrich
why isn't he dead; Republican speaker in the House; conservative legislation during Clinton's presidency.
Robert Dole
1996 Republican
John McCain
he's really old; 2000
Monica Lewinsky
Al Gore
clinton's VP
"Supply-Side" Economics
cut taxes; more money in hands; trickle down
fixing social and economic problems; opened markets
openness;Gorbachev; freedom of speech;
New Religious Right
against affirmative action, abortion, feminism,
"Ethnic Cleansing"
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
Moral Majority
anti-feminism; anti-affirmative action; conservative evangelical
cut taxes; take away from social programs and give to Defense; stopped 70s inflation; increased deficit
overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979; socialist; US financed armed opposition by the Contras
Iran-Contra Affair
arms sales to the Middle East and give money to help the Contras in Nicaragua;Agianst congress; Poindexter and North; supposed to get hostages also
Nicaragua; opposed the Sandinistas; supported by US
Grenada Invasion
Reagan send army to the island of Grenada, where a Marxists had come to power; shows dominance of the US in the Carribbean
young, urban professionals; symbolized the increased pursuit of wealth/materialism of the 1980s.
Strategic Defense Initiative
"Star Wars,";Reagan's; proposed the construction of a defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles from outer space
Roe v. Wade
legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Persian Gulf War
Fought against Iraq to free Kuwait from invaders
Americans with Disabilities Act
1991; banned discrimination against the disabled in employment; easy access to all public and commerical buildings;
27th Amendment
regulates pay raises for members of Congress
Contract with America
1994; Newt Gingrich; Republican candidates pledged their support for a balanced budget; term limits for members of Congress; and a middle-class tax cut.
Hopwood v. Texas
reverses Affirmative action in Bakke case
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada; Clinton
World Trade Organization
regulates international trade; Clinton
Columbine High School
2 kids shooting at school
Whitewater Land Corporations
Clinton's failed real estate investment
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
more regulation of abortions