57 terms

Biology 1 EOC Vocab Terms: Part 2

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Acceleration
The rate at which velocity is changing. The change may involve an increase or decrease in speed and/or a change in direction. The change may be positive or negative
Allele
Any of two or more alternate forms of a gene that an organism may have for a particular trait
Amplitude
The maximum absolute variation of any periodic function (e.g., a wave)
Astronomical Unit
A unit used to measure distances in the solar system equal to the average distance between the Sun and Earth, approximately 150 million kilometers
Autotroph
An organism that can produce food from inorganic materials (e.g., carbon dioxide, sunlight, water)
Binary Fission
An asexual reproductive process in which a single cell divides into two cells
Binomial Nomenclature
A system used to name organisms using two words: the genus name and the species name
Boiling Point
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
Budding
An asexual reproductive process in which an outgrowth of a parent organism detaches and forms a new individual of the same species
Chemical Properties
Characteristics of substances that describe their composition, reactivity, and how the substance changes into different substances
Controlled Variable
A factor or condition in a scientific experiment that is purposefully kept the same
Dominant
The form of a trait that is expressed or shown when the combination of alleles for this trait is heterozygous
Dwarf Planet
A celestial body similar to a planet but orbiting in a zone that has many other objects in it (e.g., Ceres, Pluto)
Empirical Evidence
Evidence based on observations or experiments rather than theory
Eukaryote
An organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane
Evolution (Scientific Theory of Evolution)
A cumulative change in the characteristics of
organisms or populations over time from generation to generation
F1 generation
The first generation of offspring from the mating of parental organisms (P generation)
Fault
A crack in Earth's crust along which movement has occurred
Fold
A bend in a layer or several layers of rock
Heterogeneous
A type of mixture in which different parts can be easily distinguished
Heterotroph
An organism that cannot produce its own food
Heterozygous
A cell or organism that has two different alleles for a particular trait
Homeostasis
The tendency of a cell, organism, or population to maintain internal stability
Homogeneous
A type of mixture in which the different parts are blended evenly so that the mixture is the same throughout
Homozygous
A type of cell or organism that has identical rather than different alleles for a particular trait
Hypothesis
A statement that can be tested scientifically through experiments and/or other scientific investigations
Infiltration
A process in which water soaks into the soil
Kingdom
The highest (least exclusive) Linnaean classification into which organisms are grouped, above phylum
Law (Scientific Law)
A scientific principle based on many observations of naturally occurring events that demonstrate it to be without exception under certain stated conditions
Light-year
The distance a ray of light travels in a vacuum in one year
Melting Point
The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
Model (Scientific Model)
A replica or description designed to show the workings or structure of an object or system
Molecule
The smallest unit of matter of a substance that retains all the physical and chemical properties of that substance; consists of a single atom or a group of atoms bonded together
Nebula
A large cloudlike mass of gas and dust in space that may lead to the formation of a star
Net Force
The sum of all the forces acting on an object. When forces are balanced, this force is zero and the object's motion will remain the same. When forces are unbalanced, this force is nonzero and the object's motion will change
Niche
The unique position occupied by a particular species in terms of the area it inhabits and the function it performs within the community
Nucleus
The center region of an atom where protons and neutrons are located; also, the cell structure that contains a cell's genetic material
Opaque
A term used to describe a material that absorbs and/or reflects light and does not allow light to pass through
Dependent Variable (Outcome Variable)
A factor, usually being measured or observed, that responds to, or depends on, another factor (test variable)
P generation
The parental generation in a genetic cross
Percolation
The movement of water through rock or soil
pH
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution based on a scale from 0-14
Pressure
The force exerted per unit area
Prokaryote
An organism whose cells are characterized by the lack of a defined nucleus
Recessive
The form of a trait that will be masked unless the organism is homozygous for this trait
Regeneration
The growth of new tissues or organs to replace those lost or damaged by injury
Repetition
Making multiple sets of measurements or observations in a scientific investigation
Replication
The reproduction of a scientific investigation by another person to ensure accuracy
Saturation
A condition of a solution whereby it has reached a maximum amount of solute under the given conditions
Solute
A substance that is being dissolved by another substance
Solvent
A substance that dissolves another substance
Systematic Observations
Observations obtained by following a preplanned method of observation
Temperature
A measure of how hot or cold a substance is; a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance
Independent Variable (Test Variable)
The variable manipulated by the experimenter in order to study changes in the outcome (dependent) variable
Theory (Scientific Theory)
An explanation for some naturally occurring event developed from extensive observations, experimentation, and reasoning
Translucent
A term used to describe a material that cannot be clearly seen through but that allows some light to pass through it
Transparent
A term used to describe a material that can be clearly seen through because it allows light waves to pass through in straight lines