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a mineral that can be cut and polished for use


an inorganic substance found naturally in the earth


something made of things that have never been alive

minerals form from

cooled melted rocks or hot gases or when dissolved substances separate from water

diamonds & rubies

strongest (hardest) minerals

the Mohs scale

ranks minerals by how hard they are

some minerals are also


minerals are found...

on the surface of the earth or buried in rocks or veins in the earth's crust

precious stone

a gemstone that is beautiful and rare; ex: diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds...

semiprecious stone

less valuable and more common than precious stones

gemstones are used in...

jewelry, art, ornaments, weapon handles, watches...

minerals are used in...

toothpaste, fertilizer, dry wall, pottery, electronics, glass, foods, drinks, medicines, and paints


the breaking of a mineral along smooth, straight lines or into flat sheets


the color of a mineral that you see

crystal structure

the structure that results from the orderly arrangement of the particles that make up a mineral


the breaking of a mineral unevenly in many directions


refers to how easily a mineral resists scratching or how easily it can scratch other minerals


the way a mineral reflects the light


the color of the mark made when a sample is rubbed on a harder surface

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