Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Info on space & automatic processing
While studying, you often encode the place on a page where certain material appears
Info on time & automatic processing
While going about for day, you unintentionally note the sequence of the day's events. Later, when you realize you've left your coat somewhere, you can create that sequence and retrace your steps.
Info on frequency & automatic processing
You effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen
Info on well-learned information & automatic processing
For example, when you see words in your native language, perhaps on the side of a delivery truck, you cannot help but register their meanings. These times are when automatic processing is effortless and difficult to shut off
Define effortful processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Info on repetition/rehearsal and memory
The more we rehearse something, the more we 1) remember it; 2) less repetitions we need to relearn it later.
FOr novel verbal information, practice - effortful processing - does indeed ______ ______.
Define spacing effect
The tendency for distributed study of practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
What is massed practice, & what does it do?
Cramming; it produces speedy short-term learning and feelings of confidence
The longer the space between practice sessions......
the better the retention up to 5 years later
What is the testing effect?
Repeated quizzing of previously studied material helping retention
Spaced study and self-assessment beat.....
Define serial position effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
What is a recency effect?
Deals with serial position effect; when we remember just heard words or items because they're still in our working memory
What is a primacy effect
Deals with serial position effect; when we recall first rehearsed items better
Define visual encoding
The encoding of picture images
Define acoustic encoding
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Define semantic encoding
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
What level of encoding has the best retention?
Semantic (especially when related to something meaningful to self).
Acoustic encoding enhances the memorability and seeming truth of...
rhyming aphorisms; *E.g., "What sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals" vs. " What sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks"
The amount remembered depends both on the....
1) time spent learning; 2) your making it meaningful
Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
We more easily remember concrete words, which lend themselves...
to visual mental images.
Explain how imagery and semantic encoding work together..
We can put meaning to a word, like cigarette, which is aided by our brain being able to construct a mental image of a cigarette.
Our memory of an experience is often colored by its..
best or worst moment; the best moment of pleasure or joy, and the worst moment of pain or frustration.
What is rosy retrospection
When we recall events such as a camping holiday more positively than we judged at the time; The muggy heat and long lines of the visit to Disney World fade into the glow of vivid surrounds, food, and rides
Memory aids, especially this techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Example of mnemonic device..
Dumb King Phillip Can't Order From Girl Scouts
Organizing terms into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
We more easily recall information when we can organize it into...
Familiar, meaningful chunks
Example of chunking..
ROY G. BIV or HOMES
Info on hierarchies..
When we develop an expertise in an area, we process information not only in chunk shut also in hierarchies composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts.