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41 terms

Kozier Pain Management

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Acute pain
pain that lasts only through the expected recovery period (less than six months), whether it has a sudden or slow onset and regardless of the intensity
allodynia
when nonpainful stimuli (e.g., contact with linen, water, or wind) produce pain
Agonist analgesic
full agonists which are pure opioid drugs that bind tightly to mu receptor sites, producing maximum pain inhibition, an agonist effect
Agonist-antagonist analgesic
mixed agonists-antagonists drugs that can act like opioids and relieve pain (agonist effect) when given to a client who has not taken any pure opioids
Cancer Pain
may result from the direct effects of the disease and its treatment in individuals with cancer
Central Neuropathic pain
pain that results from malfunctioning nerves in the central nervous system (e.g., spinal cord injury pain, poststroke pain, or multiple sclerosis)
Chronic pain
prolonged pain, usually recurring or persisting over six months or longer, and interferes with functioning
Coanalgesic (Adjuvant)
A medication that is not classified as a pain medication, but has properties that may reduce pain alone or in combination with other analgesics, relieve other discomforts, potentiate the effect of pain medications, or reduce the pain medication's side effects.
Cordotomy
surgical severing which obliterates pain and temperature sensation below the level of the spinothalamic portion of the anterolateral tract severed, and is usually done for pain in the legs and trunk
dysesthesia
An unpleasant or abnormal sensation that can be either spontaneous or evoked.
Effleurage
a stroking massage technique
Equianalgesia
equal analgesia, is used when referring to the doses of various opioid analgesics that provide approximately the same pain relief
Fifth vital sign
pain assessment
Hyperalgesia
extreme sensitivity to pain
Hyperpathia
Same as Hyperalgesia
Mild Pain
pain in the range of 1-3
Moderate Pain
pain in the range of 4-6
nerve block
A chemical interruption of a nerve pathway, effected by injecting a local anesthetic into the nerve. Injected drug blocks nerve pathways from the painful areas, thus stopping the transmission of pain impulses to the brain.
Neurectomy
surgery in which peripheral or cranial nerves are interrupted to alleviate localized pain
Neuropathic pain
the result of a disturbance of the peripheral or central nervous system that results in pain that may or may not be associated with an ongoing tissue-damaging process
Nociception
the physiologic processes related to pain perception
Nociceptor
a pain receptor
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)
drugs that relieve pain by acting on the peripheral nerve endings to inhibit the formation of the prostaglandins that tend to sensitize nerve to painful stimuli; have analgesic, anti-pyretic, and anti-inflammatory effect; include aspirin and ibuprofen
Pain
whatever the experiencing person says it is, existing whenever he (or she) says it does
Pain Management
the allevation of pain or a reduction in the pain to a level of comfort that is acceptable to the client. Pharmcologic and nonpharmacologic
Pain threshold
the least amount of pain stimulation a requires before feeling pain
Pain tolerance
the maximum amount and duration of pain that an individual is willing to endure
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)
a pain management technique that allows the client to take an active role in managing pain
Peripheral neuropathic pain
phantom limb, posterpetic neuralgia, carpal tunnel; follows damage/sensitization of peripheral nerves, (injury) pain (phantom limb pain, postherpetic neuralgia, carpal tunnel syndrome that follows damage and/or sensitization of peripheral nerves
Physiological pain
When an intact nervous system sends signals that tissues are damaged requiring treatment
Placebo
any form of treatment (e.g., medication) that produces an effect in the client because of its intent rather than its chemical or physical properties
Preemptive analgesia
the administration of analgesics prior to an invasive or operative procedure in order to treat pain before it occurs

prevents the windup and sensitization that spreads, intensifies, and prolongs pain.
Referred pain
pain perceived to be in one area but whose source is another area
Rhizotomy
interruption of the anterior or posterior nerve root between the ganglion and the cord; generally performed on cervical nerve roots to alleviate pain of the head and neck
Severe Pain
pain in the range of 7-10
Somatic pain
pain that arises from ligaments, tendons, bones, blood vessels, and nerves
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS)
involves the insertion of a cable that allows the placement of an electrode directly on the spinal cord and is used with nonmalignant pain that has not been controlled with less invasive therapies
Sympathectomy
severence of the pathways of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system; eliminates vasospasm, improves peripheral blood supply, and is effective in treating painful vascular disorders
Sympathetically maintained pain
pain that occurs with abnormal connections between pain fibers and the sympathetic nervous system (edema, temp, blood flow regulation)
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)
a noninvasive, nonanalgesic pain control technique that allows the client to assist in the management of acute and chronic pain
Visceral pain
results from stimulation of pain receptors in the abdominal cavity, cranium, and thorax (organs and/or hollow viscera.) Tends to be characterized by cramping, throbbing, pressing, or aching. Sometimes associated with feeling sick (nausea, vomiting, sweating), such as labor pain, angina pectoris, or irritable bowel.