42 terms

BTA 25: Hormones

BTA Biology
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hormone
A chemical that serves as a messenger; it is secreted by a gland and travels through the blood to one or more target organs, where it brings about responses.
ghrelin
a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach
endocrine system
collection of glands that secrete hormones into the blood which regulate growth, development, and homeostasis
endocrine glands
hormone-secreting organs
steroids
hormones that are made from cholesterol and are therefore lipid soluble (hydrophobic) and able diffuse into the cell through simple diffusion. They either bind to intracellular receptors in their target cells go into the nucleus of the cell and affect gene expression.
water soluble hormones
amines, peptides, and proteins bind to receptor proteins on the plasma membrane of their target cells, activating an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a second messenger that then has an effect on intracellular processes
hypothalamus
a part of the brain that is the main control center of the endocrine system; it receives information from nerves about the internal conditions of the body and responds by sending out the appropriate neural or endocrine responses; directly controls the pituitary gland
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, this gland regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
posterior pituitary
gland that stores and releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus: Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
anterior pituitary
gland that makes and secretes growth hormone (GH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin
ADH
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland that causes cells in the kidney to reabsorb water, decreasing urine volume and preventing dehydration; inhibited by diuretics
diuretics
Increase urine output by inhibiting ADH; caffeine, alcohol
FSH
a hormone released by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of sperm in the male and growth of the follicle (which produces the egg) in the female.
LH
secreted by pituitary; regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in the female and testosterone production in the male
prolactin
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates milk production
GH
Substance secreted by the anterior pituitary;causes overall growth in an individual by promoting cell division, protein synthesis, and bone growth and inhibiting protein degradation
endorphins
opiate-like hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary that give one a feeling of well-being, euphoria or eliminate pain
thyroid gland
large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism
parathyroid glands
four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland that work with the thyroid gland to regulate calcium levels in the body by secreting parathyroid hormone (PTH)
calcitonin
thyroid hormone that lowers the levels of calcium in the blood by causing more calcium do be deposited in the bones and causing the kidneys to reabsorb less calcium from the urine
PTH
hormone that raises blood calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium by bones and increasing the uptake of calcium by the kidneys and small intestine
antagonistic hormones
hormones that have opposite effects, examples: PTH and calcitonin; insulin and glucagon
pancreas
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
insulin
a hormone produced by islet cells in the pancreas and released in response to high blood glucose; it promotes the use and storage of glucose by the body's tissues
glucagon
a hormone secreted by islet cells in the pancreas that increases blood sugar by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen (to glucose) in the liver
diabetes mellitus
the inability to produce (type 1) or respond to (type 2) insulin; results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream
epinephrine
adrenaline; a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla that activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (like epinephrine and cortisone) that help arouse the body in times of stress
adrenal medulla
inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
adrenal cortex
the outer part of the adrenal gland that secretes many hormones, including cortisone and aldosterone
norepinephrine
noradrenaline; chemical which is excitatory, similar to epinephrine, and affects arousal and memory; raises blood pressure by causing blood vessels to become constricted; it is also carried by bloodstream to the anterior pituitary which relaxes ACTH thus prolonging the stress response
corticosteroids
steroid hormones released by the adrenal cortex that play a key role in the body's response to stress
glucocorticoids
corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex that promote synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrates like fat and protein; they also suppress the immune system and the inflammatory response; cortisone is the most important
gonads
ovaries in females and testicles in males; gamete-producing glands
estrogens
steroid hormones that stimulate development of female reproductive system and contribute to development of secondary sexual characteristics; secreted by ovarian follicles and corpus luteum
androgens
A steroid hormone, such as testosterone or androsterone, that controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics
progestins
hormones (primarily progesterone) produced by the gonads that are primarily involved in preparing the uterus to support a developing embryo
luteinizing hormone
LH
growth hormone
GH
antidiuretic hormone
ADH
follicle-stimulating hormone
FSH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACTH