Early Middle Ages
Fortress which protected those in a manor and home of the lord
Code of behavior Knights were supposed to follow of loyalty and respect
Controlled all land within manor, owed loyalty to monarch
A knight in training ages 7-14, assistant to the lord
Man who owes allegiance to a greater lord
Persons sworn to protect the lords' manor from all enemies; generally came from noble families
loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their large landholdings among lesser lords
each class in this system pledged their loyalty and service to their "liege" lord in exchange for rewards such as food, shelter, land, and protection.
A knight in training from age 14-21, learned about chivalry and battle
A peasant (lowest class)
•Hard life, not allowed to own land, no money, many responsibilities, life long labor, most people were serfs
A piece of land upon which individuals and families lived during the Middle Ages.
A unit of land in medieval Europe in which a community lived.
consisted of castle, fields, homeland (also church)
Worldly rather than religious
Tax by Church requiring all Christians (even the serfs) to pay 1/10 of their income- used to help the poor
Rules to regulate and modify life for monks and nuns
Prejudice against people of the Jewish faith
A church punishment over an entire town or region
Sacred ritual of the Church (marriage, communion, reconciliation, Baptism, last rites)
•Christians can only avoid Hell by receiving these from the Church
Body of laws within the Church community. Church laws and courts supersede (outranks) all other laws including secular laws.
Selling of position in the Church
prohibited by Pope Gregory VII in 1073
The practice of charging interest on loans
church banned Christians from doing this so Jews were often moneylenders
Any person who held a Monastic way of life
•Priests and Popes are both part of this
Exclusion from the Church for disobeying Church laws with severe punishments
•Could not receive sacraments; could not be buried on sacred ground; all Christians must shun people burdened with this
Trainees starting at age 7
Money for investment borrowed from banks
•Merchants relied on this to finance their new businesses due to increase in trade
Giant Christian churches
3 types of ordeals that were used during the Middle Ages
Water, fire, and combat
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