26 terms

Early Middle Ages

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castle
Fortress which protected those in a manor and home of the lord
chivalry
Code of behavior Knights were supposed to follow of loyalty and respect
lord
Controlled all land within manor, owed loyalty to monarch
page
A knight in training ages 7-14, assistant to the lord
vassal
Man who owes allegiance to a greater lord
knight
Persons sworn to protect the lords' manor from all enemies; generally came from noble families
feudalism
loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their large landholdings among lesser lords

each class in this system pledged their loyalty and service to their "liege" lord in exchange for rewards such as food, shelter, land, and protection.
squire
A knight in training from age 14-21, learned about chivalry and battle
serf
A peasant (lowest class)
•Hard life, not allowed to own land, no money, many responsibilities, life long labor, most people were serfs
fief
A piece of land upon which individuals and families lived during the Middle Ages.
manor
A unit of land in medieval Europe in which a community lived.
consisted of castle, fields, homeland (also church)
secular
Worldly rather than religious
tithe
Tax by Church requiring all Christians (even the serfs) to pay 1/10 of their income- used to help the poor
Benedictine Rules
Rules to regulate and modify life for monks and nuns
anti- Semitism
Prejudice against people of the Jewish faith
interdict
A church punishment over an entire town or region
sacrament
Sacred ritual of the Church (marriage, communion, reconciliation, Baptism, last rites)
•Christians can only avoid Hell by receiving these from the Church
canon law
Body of laws within the Church community. Church laws and courts supersede (outranks) all other laws including secular laws.
simony
Selling of position in the Church
prohibited by Pope Gregory VII in 1073
usury
The practice of charging interest on loans
church banned Christians from doing this so Jews were often moneylenders
clergy
Any person who held a Monastic way of life
•Priests and Popes are both part of this
excommunication
Exclusion from the Church for disobeying Church laws with severe punishments
•Could not receive sacraments; could not be buried on sacred ground; all Christians must shun people burdened with this
apprentice
Trainees starting at age 7
capital
Money for investment borrowed from banks
•Merchants relied on this to finance their new businesses due to increase in trade
Cathedrals
Giant Christian churches
3 types of ordeals that were used during the Middle Ages
Water, fire, and combat
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