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BIO 151 Final Exam Study Notes
Terms in this set (235)
Five Fundamental Characteristics of Life
Energy, Cells, Information, Replication, Evolution
All organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells.
The Cell Theory was formulated to directly challenge this existing theory.
This scientist used a swan neck flask and boiled nutrient-rich broth to disprove the theory of Spontaneous Generation
Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
Species are related by a common ancestor. Characteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation.
Change in the characteristics of a population over time.
This explains how evolution occurs.
Natural Selection occurs when these two characteristics are met.
Individuals in a population vary in heritable characteristics. Certain versions of these traits are better suited for the survival of the individual.
A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time.
_______ acts on individuals. _________ occurs in populations.
Natural Selection, Evolution
The ability of an individual to produce viable offspring.
A trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment.
Divergent process where one species evolves into several new species through natural selection.
Actual genealogical relationships between two organisms.
Molecule that is important for understanding relationships between organisms.
Species that share most of the same sequences in rRNA are ______ related and species that share few sequences are ______ related.
Closely, Not Closely
All eukaryotes have a prominent component called a _______.
Vast majority of bacteria and archaea are ________.
Effort to name and classify organisms.
Taxon (Taxa = Plural)
Any named group of organisms.
Three Domains of life.
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Major lineages within each domain.
The names of an organism consists of its ______ and ______.
Atomic Number represents ________.
The number of protons in a specific element
Mass Number represents ________.
The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
Forms of a different element based off the number of neutrons present in the atom.
Average of all the mass numbers of naturally occurring isotopes.
Electrons move around the nucleus in specific regions called ________.
Orbitals are grouped together in _______.
Number of electrons an orbital can hold.
Electrons found in the outermost shell are referred to as _________.
A strong attraction where two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is called a _______ bond.
An atom is most stable when _________.
Its outer shell is completely filled.
Substates held together by covalent bonds.
Property of how tightly atoms hold their electons
In ________ bonds, electrons are shared equally/ symmetrically.
In _______ bonds, electrons are not shared equally/ non-symmetrically.
Polar Bonds produce _______ on atoms.
Ranking of the four most abundant elements in terms of electronegativity.
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon and Hydrogen
Ionic bonds involve
The complete transfer of one electron of one atom to another atom.
Positively charged ions
Negatively charged ions
_______ bonds are the strongest.
A _______ dissolves in a ________ to form a solution.
Partial positive charge of hydrogen attracts partial negative charge of oxygen between water molecules.
_______ molecules are hydrophilic and therefore dissolve in water. These include ions and polar molecules.
_______ molecules are hydrophobic and therefore do not dissolve in water. These include nonpolar molecules.
Attraction between like molecules
Attraction between unlike molecules
Water is denser as a _______ than as a _______.
Specific Heat (Water's is high)
Amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 degree C.
Specific Heat increases with the prevalence of more __________.
Heat of Vaporization (Water's is high)
Amount of energy required to change one gram of liquid to a gas.
What happens in a chemical reaction?
Atoms become rearranged and substances either combine or break down.
Sum of all the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule.
Number of moles of a substance present in liters of a solution.
pH signifies ________.
Concentration of protons in a solution.
More protons = _________. Less protons = ________.
Higher pH = _________. Lower pH = _________.
Compounds that minimize changes in pH.
When the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate and the quantities of products and reactants remain constant, the reaction is said to be at ____________.
When energy has to be absorbed to start a reaction, the reaction is __________.
When energy is released during a reaction, the reaction is __________.
Capacity to do work or supply heat
Potential energy stored in electrons is known as __________.
The amount of thermal energy a molecule possesses.
The transfer of energy between two objects of different temperatures.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is conserved, it cannot be created or destroyed, but only transferred and transformed.
Chemical reactions are spontaneous if ___________.
They are able to proceed on their own without any needed extra energy.
Reactions are spontaneous when the product molecules are ________ ordered than the reactants. (Entropy increases)
Reactions are spontaneous when the products have ________ potential energy than the reactants. (Exothermic)
Photons strike molecules and can for high energy fragments called _________.
Molecules that contain carbon bonded to other elements are called _______ molecules.
Most versatile element.
20 different building blocks that make up proteins are called ___________.
The four "things" bonded to the central carbon of an amino acid:
Hydrogen atom, NH2 (amino functional group), COOH (carboxyl functional group), distinctive R-Group
In the ionized form of an amino acid, the amino group becomes _____ charged, and the carboxyl group becomes _____ charged
The properties of amino acids vary due to their different _________.
If a side chain contains a negative charge, it is _________.
If a side chain contains a positive charge, it is _________.
If a side chain is uncharged and contains an oxygen atom, it is _________.
If a side chain is uncharged and does not contain an oxygen atom, it is __________.
Molecular subunits that polymerize to form larger molecules.
A molecule made up of many monomers.
Process of linking monomers together to form a polymer.
Monomers polymerize through ________ reactions.
Condensation reactions involve the loss of a _______ molecule.
The opposite of a condensation reaction where water is added to a molecule causing it to break its bonds.
Which reaction is spontaneous, condensation or hydrolysis?
The bond that links amino acids forms between the ________ group of one amino acid and the ________ group of another.
The C-N bond formed between amino acids is known as a ________ bond.
The end of the backbone of an amino acid chain with a free amino group is called the __________.
The end of the backbone of an amino acid chain with a free carboxyl group is called the _________.
Amino acids that contain over 50 amino acids.
Primary Structure of a Protein
The unique sequence of amino acids.
Secondary Structure of a Protein
Alpha-helicies and Beta-pleated sheets that result from hydrogen bonding between elements of the backbone of amino acid sequences.
Tertiary Structure of a Protein
Results from interactions between R-groups of amino acids. (Hydrogen bonding, Hydrophobic reactions, van der Waals interactions, Covalent bonding, Ionic bonding.)
Quaternary Structure of a Protein
Combination of separate polypeptides coming together to form a larger structure.
Denaturing of Proteins
When a protein becomes unfolded and therefore non-functional.
Dangerous/ deathly infectious, disease-causing agents that fold proteins in dangerous ways.
Six functions of proteins
Catalysis, Defense, Movement, Signaling, Structure, Transport
A protein that functions as a catalyst.
Reactant molecules in a catalytic reaction
Proteins bring substrates together at the ________ to start a catalytic reaction.
Nucleic Acids are polymers made up of monomers called _________.
The three components of a nucleotide
A phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base.
Monomers of RNA
Monomers of DNA
Ribonucleotides are made of the sugars _________ and contain _________ in the form of OH bonded to the 2nd carbon.
Deoxynucleotides are made of the sugars _________ and lack ________ bonded to the 2nd carbon.
The larger type of nitrogenous base that consists of adenine and guanine.
The smaller type of nitrogenous base that consists of cytosine, uracil, and thymine.
Ribonucleotides use the base ______ instead of thymine, which is used by deoxynuecleotides.
Nucleotides bond with one another through ___________ reactions.
The bonds that hold nucleotides together are called ___________.
The backbone of a nucleic acid is directional. It has an end containing an unlinked ___ phosphate group and another end containing an unlinked ___ hydroxyl group.
New nucleotides are added to the ____ end of the nucleotide.
Primary Structure of Nucleic Acids
Sequence of nitrogenous bases
Polymerization of nucleotides into nucleic acids requires an energy source known as ______.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Polymerization is _________ (Endergonic or exergonic).
DNA and RNA have a ___________ backbone.
_______ and ______ pair; _______ and _______ pair in DNA.
Adenine, Thymine; Guanine, Cytosine
Antiparallel Strands of Nucleic Acids
One strand of nucleic acids runs 3' to 5' while the other runs 5' to 3'.
Secondary Structure of Nucleic Acids
In nucleic acids, the _______ end up on the outside while the _____ face inward.
Sugar-phosphate bases, nitrogenous bases
The type of bonds that hold complementary nitrogenous bases together in nucleic acids.
The nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids are __________. (Hydrophobic or Hydrophilic)
______ holds the information required for an organism's growth and reproduction.
Two differences between DNA and RNA.
RNA contains the sugar ribose in its backbone. Uracil replaces thymine.
RNA is _____ stable than DNA.
Secondary Structure of RNA
Tertiary Structure of RNA
More complex folding due to interactions from secondary structure.
Unlike DNA, RNA can function as a _________, able to catalyze chemical reactions.
Carbohydrates are made of monomers called _________.
Carbohydrates consist of a _____ group and several _______ functional groups with many C-H bonds.
Carbonyl (C=O), Hydroxyl (OH)
Whether a monosaccharide is an aldose or ketose depends on the ______________.
Location of the carbonyl group (end=adose, middle=ketose)
Trioses, Pentoses, and Hexoses refer to _________.
The number of carbons in a monosaccharide.
In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides form ________ structures.
What distinguishes different monosaccharides from one another?
Placement of carbonyl group, number of carbon atoms, orientation of hydroxyl group.
Monosaccharides polymerize into polysaccharides through ________ reactions.
The type of bond linking the hydroxyl groups of two monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides are joined by one of two types of glycosidic linkages called _____________.
Alpha 1,4-glycosidic linkages and Beta 1,4-glycosidic linkages
Stored in plant cells, consists of Alpha linkages
Unbranched form of starch
Branched form of starch (links between 1 and 6 carbons)
Stored in animal cells, Alpha linkages, branched
Structural support in plant cells, Beta linkages, exists in cell walls
Present in Fungi and exoskeletons of animals, Beta linkages
Present in Bacteria, Beta linkages
3 Functions of Carbohydrates
Provide structure, Indicate cell identity, store chemical energy
________ help cells identify one another as a body part by binding to the cell's surface.
Which of the following has the lowest potential energy? C-C, C-O, or C-H bonds
What is able to store more energy, carbohydrates or fats?
Enzymes called __________ breaks down glycogen into glycogen in carbohydrates through hydrolysis.
Energy stored in glucose is used to make _______.
ATP consists of a precursor, __________ and ________.
ADP, inorganic phosphate
Layer of molecules that surrounds a cell's interior and separates it from the environment.
Nonpolar, hydrophobic, carbon-containing compounds found in organisms
Molecules that contain only hydrogen and carbon
Fatty acids consist of ____________.
A hydrocarbon chain bound to a carboxyl functional group.
Hydrocarbons consisting of only single bonds are called _________.
Fats consists of _________.
3 fatty acids linked to a 3-carbon glycerol
Glycerol and fatty acids are linked by an _________ linkage.
Steroids are distinguished by their __________.
Bulky, four-ring structure attached to an isoprenoid tail
Phospholipids consist of a phosphate group and two _________ chains.
Hydrocarbon (isoprenoids or fatty acids)
Phospholipids have a _______ head and _______ tail.
Polar (Hydrophilic), Nonpolar (Hydrophobic)
Compounds that contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements are called _________.
Hydrophilic heads face ______ in a bilayer.
Outward (towards the surrounding solution)
The tendency of a structure to allow a given substance to pass through it.
___________ molecules most easily pass through a lipid bilayer.
Which type of fat makes a bilayer more permeable (saturated or unsaturated)?
The steroid _______ reduces membrane permeability.
Movement of molecules and ions that results from kinetic energy
Concentration gradients are formed by ___________
A difference in solute concentrations.
Ions move in response to an _______________.
Channels and carrier proteins perform _________ transport.
Pumps perform _______ transport.
Active (against the electrochemical gradient)
The Sodium-Potassium Pump gets energy from ______.
In the Sodium-Potassium Pump, _______ enters the cell and ______ leaves.
2 K+, 3 NA+
In addition to chromosomes, bacterial cells contain small supercoiled segments of DNA called __________.
Cytoskeletons are made of _________.
Needlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane of some bacteria to attach to other cells.
Fluid portion between the membrane and organelles.
Two advantages of compartmentalization:
Chemical reactions can be separated, reactions can be more efficient.
Double Membrane that surrounds the nucleus, regulates flow of materials in and out.
Stiffens structure of nuclear envelope.
Interior of the rough ER.
Synthesizes proteins from ribosomes to be shipped elsewhere in cell.
Contains enzymes that catalyze reactions involving lipids.
The Golgi Apparatus consists of flattened sacs called ________.
The ________ side of the Golgi Apparatus is closest to the nucleus. The ________ side is farthest.
The Golgi Apparatus receives products from the rough ER and __________ them elsewhere.
Packages and ships
Contained in animal cells, function as recycling centers, break down molecules.
Endomembrane system consists of ____________.
The Golgi Apparatus, ER, and Lysosomes.
Centers for redox reactions in eukaryotic cells
Oxidize fats to form a compound that can be used for energy for the cell
Sac-like structures within Mitochondria
Solution enclosed within the Mitochondria
Where sunlight is converted into energy in plant cells
Extensive system of protein fibers within the cell, giving the cell its shape and stability.
Proteins bound for the endomembrane system have a __________.
Molecular zip code
New cisternae form at the _________ side of the Golgi Apparatus
When a vesicle is secreted outside of the cell.
When a foreign substrate is taken in by the cell.
When damaged organelles are delivered to the lysosome to be destroyed.
When a cell engulfs an external cell or food particle and is delivered to the lysosome to be digested.
Actin fibers have two ends a ______ end and a ______ end.
Plus, Minus (Plus grows faster than minus)
Smallest cytoskeletal element
Microfilaments (Actin, Myosin)
Motor protein that acts with Actin
Largest cytoskeletal element
Microtubule organizing center in animals, contains centrioles.
What serves as tracks for vesicle transport?
The amount of energy that is available to do work.
Total amount of energy within a molecule. (Heat)
When delta H is negative, the reaction is ________.
Exothermic (Releases heat)
When delta H is positive, the reaction is ________.
Endothermic (Absorbs heat)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy increases increases in isolated systems.
Spontaneous reactions are also called _________.
Exergonic (Release energy) Delta G = Negative
Non-spontaneous reactions are also called ________.
Endergonic (Require an input of energy) Delta G = Positive
Oxidation is the _______ of electrons.
Loss (Positive charge)
Reduction is the _______ of electrons.
Gain (Negative charge)
Oxidation is Loss, Reduction is Gain (of electrons)
FAD and NAD+ are examples of _________ and are ________ by accepting two electrons.
Electron acceptors, reduced twice
The transfer of a phosphate group to a substrate.
When an enzyme changes shape after binding to substrates.
Enzymes work by ____________.
Lowering the activation energy of a reaction.
Three steps of enzyme catalysis.
Initiation, Transition state facilitation, Termination
Cofactors to enzymes
Inorganic ions such as metals, reversibly act with enzymes.
Coenzymes to enzymes
Organic molecules such as NADH or FADH2
Break down large molecules into smaller ones
Form larger molecules from smaller ones
Four steps of glucose oxidation
Glycolysis, Pyruvate processing, Citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
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