152 terms

Criminology Ch4-9

1. Rational Choice Theory has roots in the ____ school of criminology developed by the Italian social thinker, Cesare Beccaria
2. Rational Choice Theory has roots in the Positivist School of Criminology
Stand a good chance of being caught or punished
3. Which of the following prompted an offender to decide to forgo crime?
4. The 'high' of successfully executing illegal activities
failed to find evidence that an execution produces an immediate decline in the murder rate
5. Research on immediate impact of well-publicized executions
Community Deterioration
6. Social Ecology School of Criminology associates crime rates and the need for police services to
Trait Theory
1. _____ reflects view that criminality is the product of abnormal biological or physical traits
2. Biological explanations of crime re-emerged in early ___ with sociobiology by Edmund O. Wilson
3. Evidence exists that indicates low levels of brain chemical compounds called ____ are associated with violent behavior
4. The 'Twinkie defense' attention to view that biochemical conditions can affect social behavior
Arousal Theory
5. According to ____ for a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli
Conduct Disorder
6. Many ADHD kids suffer from ___ and engage in aggressive and antisocial behavior in childhood
Social Classes
1. ________ are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms
Social Disorganization Theory
2. Which theory focuses on the urban conditions, such as high unemployment and school dropout rates to explain crime?
Cultural Transmission
3. Sub-cultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called
4. General Strain Theory is not purely a structural theory because it focuses on how life events influence behavior
5. The family-crime relationship is significant across racial, ethnic and gender lines
Culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them
6. What two elements of culture interact to produce anomie and/or anomic conditions?
1. Social Control Theory suggests that people learn techniques and attitudes of crime from close relationships with criminal peers
More likely to use illicit drugs and be more aggressive as they mature
2. Adolescents who do not receive affection from their parents during childhood are
Loyalty to
3. When examining the relationship between delinquent peers and fear of punishment, _____ delinquent peers may outweigh the fear of punishment
4. The process of _____ refers to moving in and out of delinquency or shifting between conventional and deviant values
Denial of the victim
5. Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by maintaining that the crime victim "had it coming." This is an example of which technique of neutralization?
Delinquency may lead to weakened bonds, not vice versa
6. Which of the following issues has been raised regarding the validity of social control theory?
Labeling theory recognizes that criminality is a disease or pathological behavior
7. Which of the following statements does NOT reflect labeling theory?
Increased effect of media and demystifying the law
1. Which of the following is NOT a basic concern of critical criminologists?
Political concept designed to protect the power of the upper class
2. According to critical theorists, crime is a
State (organized) Crime
3. ___ describes the anti-social behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class and gender advantages of those who support the government
4. According to this type of critical theory, the poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich, but the poor are certainly arrested and punished more often
5. Instrumental theorists consider it essential to ____ law and justice - that is, to unmask its true purpose
Encouraging crime rather than preventing it
6. Peacemaking criminologists view the efforts as the state to punish and control crime as
Eleanor and Sheldon Glueck
1. The integrative methodology in the early research of ___ formed the basis of today's developmental approach
2. Latent trait theories hold that human development is controlled by a "master trait" present at birth or soon after
Early onset of antisocial behavior predicts more serious criminality
3. Why is early onset an important factor in crime?
At birth or soon after
4. According to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear?
A latent trait
5. According to Wilson and Herrnstein's crime and human nature view, a criminal incident occurs when an individual chooses criminal over conventional behavior. What factor influences that choice?
Rational Choice Theory
The view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act
Classical Criminology
A theory of crime suggesting that criminal behavior is a matter of personal choice, made after the individual considers its costs and benefits, and that the criminal behavior reflects the needs of the offender
Founder of Classical Criminology
Cesare Beccaria
Gary Becker and James Wilson
Rational Choice Guys
Offense-Specific Crime
A crime in which the offender reacts selectively to the characteristics of a particular criminal act
Offender-Specific Crime
A crime in which offenders evaluate their skills, motives, needs and fears before deciding to commit the criminal act
Where they occur, the characteristics of the target, and learned criminal techniques
Rational Choice theory says the decision to commit crime is structured by
A relatively new and fresh piece of electronic equipment is highly desired by burglars
Drug dealers are violent street thugs
Neighborhood watch programs are a waste of time
Awareness Space
Familiarity with the area to have an escape route
Criminal behavior is essentially harmful and dysfunctional
Market Related, Status Based, Personalistic
Targets are chosen by crime based on one of these three things:
The excitement or exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations
Seductions of Crime
The situational inducements or immediate benefits that draw offenders into law violations
Situational Crime Prevention
A method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings
Defensible Space
The principle that crime can be prevented or displaced by modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity that individuals have to commit crime
It's possible to reduce drunk driving by installing on cars a locking device that prevents drunk drivers from starting their cars
Crime Discouragers
People who serve as guardians of property or people, grouped as guardians, handlers or managers
An effect that occurs when efforts to prevent one crime unintentionally prevents another
An effect that occurs when crime control efforts targeting a particular locale help reduce crime in surrounding areas and populations
An effect that occurs when crime control efforts simply move, or redirect, offenders to less heavily guarded alternative targets
An effect that occurs when crime reduction programs produce a short-term positive effect, but benefits dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions
An effect that occurs when criminals try new offenses that had previously avoided because situational crime prevention programs neutralized their crime of choice
General Deterrence
A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties, convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweigh its benefits
Adding police on the street has no effect on crime rates
General Deterrence Factors
Certainty of punishment, severity of punishment, swiftness of punishment
Critiques of General Deterrence
Rationality, System Effectiveness, Deterrability
Specific Deterrence
The view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts (not clear cut that it is effective)
The more you punish people, the less likely they are to commit crimes
Confinement in jail or prison
Repetition of criminal behavior
Incapacitation Effect
The view that placing offenders behind bars during their prime crime years reduces their opportunity to commit crime and helps lower the crime rate
Locking up millions of criminals can bring down the crime rate
Trait Theory
The view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits
The view that human behavior is motivated by inborn biological urges to survive and preserve the species (Trait Theory)
Cesare Lombroso
Founder of Trait Theory
You are what you eat! Eating healthy can reduce antisocial behaviors
It may be because of their hormones that men exhibit more violent behavior than women
A condition that occurs when glucose (sugar) in the blood falls below levels necessary for normal and efficient brain functioning
Male sex hormones
The principal male hormone
Premenstrual Syndrome
Condition, postulated by some theorists, wherein several days before and during menstruation, excessive amounts of female sex hormones stimulate antisocial, aggressive behavior
The image of the brain-damaged villain going on a violent rampage is more likely to occur in horror films than in real life
The study of brain activity
Conduct Disorder
A pattern of repetitive behavior in which the rights of other or social norms are violated
A developmentally inappropriate lack of attention, along with impulsivity and hyperactivity
Chemical compounds that influence or activate brain functions
The acorn does not fall from the tree; that is, the children of deviant parents are more likely than other kids to be antisocial themselves
Arousal Theory
The view that people seek to maintain a preferred level of arousal but vary in how they process sensory input. A need for high levels of environmental stimulation may lead to aggressive, violent behavior patterns (Trait Theory)
Monozygotic (identical)
Studies show that this type of twin behavior have detected a significant relationship between the criminal activities
Contagion Effect
People become deviant when they are influenced by others with whom they are in close contact
Dizygotic (fraternal)
Studies show that this type of twin behavior have detected a much lower association between criminal activities
The behavior of identical twins is eerily similar, but if they live apart all their lives without knowing each other, they are likely to be quite different
Genetic Theory
Holds that violence-producing traits are passed from generation to generation (Trait Theory)
Evolutionary Theory
Holds that instinctual drives control behavior, the urge to procreate influences male violence (Trait Theory)
Neurological Theory
Criminals and delinquents often suffer brain impairment and ADHD and minimal brain dysfunction are related to antisocial behavior (Trait Theory)
Biochemical Theory
Crime, especially violence, is a function of diet, vitamin intake, hormonal imbalance or food allergies (Trait Theory)
Psychodynamic Theory
Theory, originated by Freud, that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes that develop early in childhood and involve the interaction of id, ego and superego (Trait Theory)
The primitive part of people's mental makeup, present at birth, that represents unconscious biological drives for food, sex and other life-sustaining necessities. The ID seeks instant gratification without concern for the rights of others
The part of the personality developed in early childhood that helps control the ID and keep people's actions within the boundaries of social convention
Incorporation within the personality of the moral standards and values of parents, community and significant others
Attachment Theory
Bowlby's theory that being able to form an emotional bond to another person is an important aspect of mental health throughout the life span (Trait Theory)
Behavior Theory
The view that all human behavior is learned through a process of social reinforcement, rewards and punishment (Trait Theory)
Social Learning Theory
The view that people learn to be aggressive by observing others acting aggressively to achieve some goal or being rewarded for violent acts, Bandura (Trait Theory)
Psychological Trait View
Focuses on associations among intelligence, personality, learning and criminal behavior
Critiques of sociobiology trait theory
Racist, regional differences not accounted for
Behavior Modeling
The process of learning behavior (notably, aggression) by observing others. Aggressive models may be parents, criminals in the neighborhood or characters on TV or movies (Trait Theory)
Watching violent TV shows makes kids behave more violently
Cognitive Theory
Psychological perspective that focuses on the mental processes by which people perceive and represent the world around them and solve problems (Trait Theory)
Information-Processing Theory
Theory that focuses on how people process, store, encode, retrieve and manipulate information to make decisions and solve problems (Trait Theory)
The reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions, that distinguish one person from another
Antisocial Personality
Combination of traits, such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, hedonism, and inability to empathize with others, that make a person prone to deviant behavior and violence; also referred to as sociopathic or psychopathic personality
Nature Theory
The view that intelligence is largely determined genetically and that low intelligence is linked to criminal behavior (Trait Theory)
Nurture Theory
The view that intelligence is not inherited but is largely a product of environment. Low IQ scores do not cause crime but may result from the same environmental factors (Trait Theory)
Mood Disorder
A condition in which the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances
Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior, during which a child loses her or his temper, often argues with adults, and often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules
A severe disorder marked by hearing nonexistent voices, seeing hallucinations, and exhibiting inappropriate responses
Bipolar Disorder
An emotional disturbance in which moods alternate between periods of wild elation and deep aggression
Primary Prevention Programs
Programs, such as substance abuse clinics and mental health associations, that seek to treat personal problems before they manifest themselves as crime
Secondary Prevention Programs
Programs that provide treatment, such as psychological counseling to youths and adults after they have violated the law
Gangs are local groups that defend their turf from outsiders
Stratified Society
People grouped according to economic or social class; characterized by the unequal distribution of wealth, power and prestige
Social Class
Segment of the population whose members are at a relatively similar economic level and who share attitudes, values, norms and an identifiable lifestyle
There are very few truly poor people in the United States, the wealthiest country on Earth
Culture of Poverty
A separate lower-class culture, characterized by apathy, cynicism, helplessness and mistrust of social institutions such as schools, government agencies and the police that is passed from one generation to the next
The lowest social stratum in any country, whose members lack the education and skills needed to function successfully in modern society
Political, social and economic programs such as affirmative action have erased the economic gulf between whites and minorities
Social Structure Theory
The view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime, Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
Social Disorganization Theory
Branch of social structure theory that focuses on the breakdown in inner-city neighborhoods of institutions such as the family, school and employment
Strain Theory
Branch of social structure theory that sees crime as a function of the conflict between people's goals and the means available to obtain them
The anger, frustration and resentment experienced by people who believe they cannot achieve their goals through legitimate means
Cultural Deviance Theory
Branch of social structure theory that sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lower-class culture that conflicts with conventional social norms
A set of values, beliefs and traditions unique to a particular social class or group within a larger society
Cultural Transmission
Process whereby values, beliefs and traditions are handed down from one generation to the next
Transitional Neighborhood
An area undergoing a shift in population and structure, usually from middle-class residential to lower-class mixed-use
People living in lower-class neighborhoods mistrust the government and believe that government programs are part of a plot to destroy their communities
Factors associated with Social Disorganization
Community disorder, Community fear, Siege Mentality, Community Change, Poverty Concentration
Concentration Effect
As working and middle class families flee inner city poverty ridden areas, the most disadvantaged population is consolidated in urban ghettos
Collective Efficacy
Social control exerted by cohesive communities and based on mutual trust, including intervention in the supervision of children and maintenance of public order
Three forms of Collective Efficacy
Informal social control (approval by peers & family), Institutional social control (school and church) and Public social control (police or outside help)
Anomie Theory
The view that anomie (without norms) results when socially defined goals (such as wealth and power) are universally mandated but access to legitimate means (such as education and job opportunities) is stratified by class and status, Robert Merton (Social Structure Theory)
Social Adaptations to Anomie
Conformity, Innovation, Ritualism, Retreatism, Rebellion
Crime rates always go down in a healthy economy
Institutional Anomie Theory
The view that anomie pervades US culture because the drive for material wealth dominates and undermines social and community values
American Dream
The goal of accumulating material goods and wealth through individual competition; the process of being socialized to pursue material success and to believe it is achievable
Relative Deprivation
Envy, mistrust and aggression resulting from perceptions of economic and social inequality (Judith and Peter Blau)
General Strain Theory
The view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to produce criminality
Negative Affective States
Anger, frustration and adverse emotions produced by a variety of sources of strain
Focal Concerns
Values, such as toughness, street smarts, trouble, smartness, excitement, fate and autonomy, that have evolved specifically to fit conditions in lower-class environments and are in conflict with the dominant culture (Miller)
Delinquent Subculture
A value system adopted by lower-class youths that is directly opposed to that of larger society (can be gangs) (Cohen)
Status Frustration
A form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society
Middle-Class Measuring Rods
The standards by which authority figures, such as teachers and employers, evaluate lower class youngsters and often prejudge them negatively
Reaction Formation
Irrational hostility evidenced by young delinquents, who adopt norms directly opposed to middle-class goals and standards that seem impossible to achieve
Differential Opportunity
The view that lower-class youths, whose legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals (Cloward and Ohlin)
Social Structure Theory and Public Policy
Welfare, Head Start, Legal Services, Community Action Programs (Weed and Seed, War on Poverty)