An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
Axum was a trading center and a powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia. Converted to Christianity in 4th century.
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning 'shores.' Home to the Bantu speakers.
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa. Built a capital at Timbuktu, became a sensation with his pilgrimage to Mecca.
Literature not written down but passed from generation to generation through performance or word-of-mouth.