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the capital of Egypt and the largest city in Africa, and was the center trading spot because it was near the nile


Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem. Also known for his military strategies and conquests


center of the kush dynasty located on the nile; known for its manufacture of iron weapons and tools


the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and conquered a lot of land which resulted him in winning control of the gold trade routes


a city in southern Spain: a center of learning and international commerce, and "a major place of interaction among Christians, Muslims, and Jews." It was founded by the Carthaginians and was under Moorish rule from 711 to 1236 and was renowned for its architecture such as the Alcanzar government place and the Great Mosque

Mosque at Kilwa

a mosque made of coral


a republic in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea, contained rich veins of gold, which proved absolutely vital for the monetization of the medieval Mediterranean economy and for the maintenance of its balance of payments with South Asia. Also, had skillful farming and an efficient system of irrigation, which led to the production of abundant crops supporting as many as 200,000 people.


a large empire in the western Sudan that had a large royal bureaucracy. Developed from Ghana and became better-organized and more powerful state than Ghana. Had strong agricultural and commercial base leading to large population and wealth. Had two rulers- Sundiata and Mansa Musa


in South Africa, and was built on the gold trade with the east coast. Was the most powerful monument in Africa south of the Nile Valley and the Ethiopian highlands. Various Bantu peoples migrated into the area during the first millennium, displacing the earlier San inhabitants

Menelik I

King Solomon and Sheba's son, first Emperor of Ethiopia, and takes ark of the covenant from Jerusalem and brings it to Ethiopia


a member of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt, connected to a huge trading system for slaves, ivory, and gold. Later they became followers of Islam but they opposed the caliphs. They eventually formed an army and they lived in Morocco and established a language


a major trade city near the Niger River. The "golden trade" helped make this one of the most power house places of the year. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000.


Epic poem of Omar Khayyam; seeks to find meaning in life and a path to union with the divine

House of Wisdom

it was started by one of the caliphs and helped start the translation movement. It is a society of people who helped bring enlightenment to Muslim's written work.
it is a combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s.


A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain, established by the Berbers in the eighth century A.D.


a town of present day northern Ethiopia. From the first to the eighth century A.D. it was the capital of an empire that controlled much of northern Ethiopia, it helped Christianity. It was a very wealthy city and known for its access to important international trade routes.


capital and largest city of Iraq, and a city with important buildings and culture

Rashidun Army

The army of the Rashidun Caliphate that was one of the most powerful of its time. Known for its high level of discipline, strategic prowess, and organization, you could only be a soldier in the army if you were a Muslim. The army was key in conquering more territories for the Islamic empire in the 7th century.

Ibn Battuta

Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.

Mehmed II

also called Mehmed the Conqueror, Murad's son, conquered Constaninople in 1453 and opened it to new citizens of many religions and backgrounds. The rebuilt city was renamed Instanbul.

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