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APUSH KTPTK Unit 2
Terms in this set (36)
Sir Walter Raleigh's failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina that eventually vanished.
Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel in 1588 by England's swifter, more maneuverable ships; the defeat of the this marked the beginning of the decline of the Spanish Empire and the growth of England as a competitor; defeat of ships paved a way for England to go the New World as Spanish controlled the high seas originally.
Barbados Slave Code
First formal statute governing the treatment of slaves, which provided for harsh punishments against disobedient slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters. This statute denied slaves the most basic of rights- freedom-and gave masters complete control over them. Similar statutes were adopted by Southern plantation societies on the North American mainland in the 17th and 18th centuries.
A simple agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth, signed aboard the Mayflower in 1630. Created a foundation for self-government in the colony.
Migration of seventy thousand refugees from England to the North American colonies, primarily New England and the Caribbean. The twenty thousand migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose-to establish a model Christian settlement in the new world.
Drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley, document was the first "modern constitution" stabling a democratically controlled government. Key features of the document were borrowed for Connecticut's colonial charter and later, its state constitution.
Dominion of New England
Administrative union created by royal authority and implemented from London, incorporating all of New England, New York, and East and West Jersey. Placed under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros who curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents without their consent, and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. Its collapse after the Glorious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial opposition to strict royal control.
Series of laws passed, beginning in 1651 to regulate colonial shipping; the acts provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports in order to prevent colonies from trading with other countries, and that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England; eventually led to much smuggling.
Unofficial policy of realized royal control over colonial trade and only weak enforcement of Navigation Laws; helped ease the colonists' anger toward strict confinement of royal control Lasted from the Glorious Revolution to the end of the French and Indian War in 1763.
Migrants who, in exchange for transatlantic passage, bound themselves to a colonial employer for a term of service, typically between four and seven years. Their migration addressed the chronic labor shortage in the colonies and facilitated settlement. These servants could only leave after paying off their debt. After African slavery began in America, indentured servants started to dwindle down.
Uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by planter Nathaniel Bacon; initially a response to Governor William Berkeley's refusal to protect backcountry settler's from Indian attacks, the rebellion eventually grew into a broader conflict between impoverished settlers and the planter elite.
Armed march on Philadelphia by Scotts-Irish frontiersmen in protest against the Quaker establishment's lenient policies toward Native Americans; the Scotts-Irish were rebellious and angry toward most government systems.
Eventually violent uprising of backcountry settlers, led by the Scotts-Irish, in North Carolina against unfair taxation and the control of colonial affairs by the seaboard elite.
Tax on imported molasses passed by Parliament in an effort to squelch the North American trade with the French West Indies. It proved largely ineffective due to wide-spread smuggling.
Religious revival that swept the colonies. Participating ministers, most notably Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield, placed an emphasis on direct, emotive spirituality. A second one of these arose in the nineteenth century.
Colonies where governors were appointed directly by the King and the upper house of the legislative branch was also determined by the crown. Though often competent administrators, the governors frequently ran into trouble with colonial legislatures, which resented the imposition of control from across the Atlantic.
Colonies-Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware-under the control of local proprietors, who appointed colonial governors and the upper legislative house.
King William's War
War fought largely between French trappers, British settlers, and their respective Indian allies from 1689-1697. These wars were started by Europeans who pitted colonists against the French.The colonial theater of the larger War of the League of Augsburg in Europe.
Queen Anne's War
Second in a series of conflicts between the European powers for control of North America, fought between the English and French colonists in the North, and the English and Spanish in Florida. Under the peace treaty, the French ceded Acadia (Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay to Britain.
War of Jenkin's Ear
Small-scale clash, beginning in 1739, between Britain and Spain in the Caribbean and in the buffer colony, Georgia. It merged with the much larger War of Austrian Succession in 1742.
Sir Francis Drake
An English seafarer who sailed all over the world collecting booty through pirate-like conquests of the Spanish. Queen Elizabeth was his financial backer, and she knighted him.
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English courtier who was favored by Queen Elizabeth; he tried to establish Roanoke Island, which mysteriously failed and vanished; he was ultimately beheaded for treason.
Captain John Smith
He salvaged the colony of Virginia by forcing the gold-obsessed colonists into shape with strict leadership. He was captured was Native Americans, who pretended to have him executed until Pocahontas rescued him.
A Native American chieftain who had conquered many local groups around the James River and is responsible for their inaccurate naming; he considered allying with the English settlers in order to extend his power, but the relations between the two groups were uneasy. The father of Pocahontas.
His marriage to Pocahontas sealed the treaty of the First Anglo-Powhatan War. He perfected the methods of raising and curing tobacco, which saved Virginia's economy due to the European desire for the tobacco. He was later killed during an attack on the English settlers by Native Americans.
One of the founders of Georgia; he was interested in prison reform, as Georgia was a land for debtors, and he ably defended Georgia from Spanish attacks because it was a buffer colony
A strong leader of the Pilgrims who was reelected governor 30 times. He was scholarly and worried about other colonies corrupting his Puritan settlement.
The first governor of the Massachusetts's Bay Colony; a wealthy and prominent English immigrant to the colony and was eager to lead the "religious experiment," and he helped it to become as prosperous economically as it did.
A challenger of Puritan orthodoxy through the use of logic to counter the Puritan belief of predestination; challenged minister's authority; tried to think freely and interpret Bible for herself; stated that God revealed this knowledge to her and was banished for heresy.
A wellborn Englishman who was attracted to the Quaker faith despite the anger from his father and peers; he decided to create a haven for people that shared his beliefs and wanted to earn money while experimenting with politics, so he founded Pennsylvania and advertised it well. Many immigrants came to Pennsylvania due to his generous offerings, and his relations with Natives were peaceful and friendly. Pennsylvania included religious freedom, no military, and many races. He died without respect for his triumphs...
An English explorer who was employed by the Dutch East India Company. He ignored his orders to sail northeast and instead sailed into Delaware Bay and New York Bay and up the Hudson River, but never found the shortcut through the continent that he was looking for...
An angry freeman that led a rebellion against Virginia's Governor, William Berkeley, due to Berkeley's lack of concern about the Indian attacks against his fellow freemen. The rebels were angry frontiersmen who had been forced into the backcountry and they killed many Natives, ran Berkeley from Jamestown, and torched much of Jamestown's governmental house... until he died suddenly of disease.
A governor of Virginia who was upset about the high number of indebted, poor, discontented, armed, young men in his colony, and who refused to take action against the multiple Native American against these freemen because he monopolized the Native American fur economy
A member of the clergy in Northampton, Massachusetts; he sought to revive the intensity and commitment of the original Puritan vision. Used fear as key motivator. Ignited the Great Awakening. Eternal torment in hell for sinners and unbaptized children...
Played a crucial role in 1738 during the Great Awakening- religious revival that spread through all of the colonies. He was a gifted speaker that spread his preachings of God's power and human weakness while initiating a brand new style of sermons that deeply influenced all listeners. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.
Samuel de Champlain
A leading figure, intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title "Father of New France". He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.
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