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Ability to acquire knowledge. Capacity to think and reason in the abstract. Capacity for solving problems.

Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

logical, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.

Steinberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

Analytical or componential, creative or experiential, practical or contextual.

Nature View Of Intelligence

Asserts that it is essentially determined by genetics

Nurture View Of Intelligence

Emphasizes the influence of the environment.

Types of Ability Grouping

Between Class, With-In Class, and Joplin Plan

Labeling Students According to Intelligence

Unfortunately IQ scores may be used as labels for some students. Minority and low SES students are mislabeled the most often.

Learning Styles

Visual (65%), Auditory (30%), and Kinesthetic (5%)

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

parent's income, occupation, levels of education, 4 classes (upper, middle, working, and lower)


knowledge, attitude, values, customs, and traditions

Influence of Resistance Cultures on Student's Behavior

attitudes and values, rank order (ambitious, broad-minded, helpful, imaginative, independent, logical, obedient, polite, self-controlled


refers to student's ancestry and includes common history, language, value system, and set of customs and traditions.

Teacher Behavior Towards Gender Specific Students

teacher interact with boys more often than girls, teachers ask boys more questions and these are at higher levels, boys receive more approval and positive reinforcement, boys are listened to more, and girls receive less recognition and reinforcement for creativity. Boys initiate more student-teacher interactions, boys call out more in class (8 times more often), girls are less likely to handle science equipment and lead science demonstrations or experiments.

Characteristics of Students Placed at Risk

poverty and low SES, cultural minority, non-native English speaker, and mobility.

Teaching Students Placed at Risk

low achievement, lack of motivation, low self-esteem, higher dropout rate, increased rates of crime, alcoholism, and drug abuse.

Characteristics of Schools Promoting Resilience in Students Placed at Risk

productive learning environment, high expectations, involvement of all students, high quality examples, self-regulation, and motivate students.


a variation of standard English that is associated with a particular regional or social group and is distinct in vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation.


a learned characteristic that, despite adversity, raises the likelihood of success in school and later life.

English Language Learner ELL

students for whom English is not their first or home language

Maintenance Bilingual Program

programs for ELL students that build on students' native languages by teaching in both English and the native languages.

Child's Home Culture

The knowledge, attitudes, values, and customs that characterize a social group.

Cultural Mismatch

a cultural clash that occurs when a child's home culture and the culture of the school create conflicting expectations for a student's behavior.

Culturally Responsive Teaching

classroom management that combines teachers' awareness of possible personal biases with cultural knowledge.

Stereotype Threat

the anxiety experienced by members of a group resulting from concern that their behavior might confirm a stereotype.

Resistance Cultures

cultures with beliefs, values, and behaviors that reject the values of mainstream cultures.

Learner Diversity

the group and individual differences that we see in our students.


The belief that students' culture of ethnicity should not be a consideration in teaching.


the ability to switch back and forth btw a dialect and standard English.

Immersion programs

English language programs that place ELLs in regular classrooms without additional assistance to help them learn both English and academic content at the same time.

Structured Immersion

A type of immersion program that attempts to assist ELLS by teaching both English and academic subjects at a slower pace.

Transitional ELL programs

ELL programs that attempt to use the native language as an instructional aid until English becomes proficient.

ESL pullout programs

Programs for ELL student who receive most of their instruction in regular classrooms but are also pulled out for extra help.

Sheltered English

An approach to teaching ELL students in academic classrooms that modifies instruction to assist students in learning content.

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)

A level of proficiency in English that allows students to interact conversationally with their peers. (Language of the kitchen)

Academic language proficiency

A level of proficiency in English that allows students to handle demanding learning tasks with abstract concepts.

Gender-role identity

Beliefs about appropriate characteristics and behaviors of the two sexes.

Ability grouping

the process of placing students of similar abilities into groups and attempting to match instruction to the needs of these groups.


Placing students in different classes or curricula on the basis of achievement.

Joplin Plan

Homogeneous grouping in reading, combined with heterogeneous grouping in other areas.

Accommodation w/o Assimilation

Encourage teachers to help members of cultural minorities to adapt to the dominant culture without losing their cultural identities.

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