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Renaissance began in cities of northern Italy

c. 1350

Columbus began European exploration of the "New World"


Luther began the Protestant Reformation


High Renaissance at its peak in Italy

c. 1520

Power shifted from Mediterranean to Atlantic countries

c. 1550

England defeated Philip II's Spanish Armada


Galileo and other astronomers challenged geocentric world view

c. 1600

English Civil War: Cromwell's Puritans defeated the Stuarts


Treat of Westphalia ended the 30 Years' War


Scientific Revolution: Newton and Locke found "natural laws"


Glorious Revolution created England's constitutional monarchy


Enlightenment "philosophies" spread modern ideas


Absolute monarchy symbolized by Louis XIV at Versailles

c. 1690

Power shifted to England after the treat of Utrecht


Frederick the Great attacked Austria


French Revolution began with the attack on the Bastille


Robespierre led the Reign of Terror in France


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