How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

23 terms

Antiseptics, Disinfectants, and Sterilization

STUDY
PLAY
Physical Agents of Sterilization
Steam Under Pressure, Dry Heat, Radiation
Chemical Agents of Sterilization
Ethylene Oxide, Gas Plasma (Sterrad), Peracetic Acid (Steris)
Gravity Displacement Autoclave
Most common heat sterilization
Steam on top displaces air to bottom, Temp increases as pressure increases
Kills all known microbes by coagulation and denaturation of proteins
Routine Instruments - 13 min @ 121
Large Linen Packs - 30 min @ 121
Emergency Flash - 3 min @ 131
How long should you Autoclave?
Dry Heat
Kills by oxidation
good for powders, oils, needles
Uses greater time and temp than autoclave
Radiation
Most common is intense gamma radiation
Industrial/Commercial use, pharmaceuticals, plastic disposables, needles
Very expensive
Ethylene Oxide
Flammable gas, contact burns, cannot be used with irradiation
NOT affected by organic matter, penetrates plastic
Kills by altering DNA through alkylation
Minimum 33% humidity and 50-55 degrees C
Endoscopes, cables, cameras, certain plastics
H2O2 Sterrad
Chemical alternative to EtO
Destroys cellular components of bacteria, spores, fungi, viruses, mycobacterium
Safe, very effective
NOT for endoscopes, liquids, or plant
1 year shelf life
Alcohol
Antiseptic
Rapidly bactericidal, but NO residual
Not for spores, fungi, virus
Presurgical skin prep, can reduce residual of chlorhexidine,
Iodine/Iodophores
Antiseptic
Free iodine is active component, Free iodine increases with decreased concentration
Kills by cell metabolic interference of protein synthesis
Bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal, NOT for spores
Minimal residual
NOT for joint or peritoneal lavage
Chlorhexidine
Antiseptic
Kills by cell membrane disruption and protein precipitation
Bactericial including Pseudomonas, variable against fungi and virus, only sporicidal at 1%
Residual, NOT cytotoxic, but NOT for joint or peritoneal lavage
Alcohol vs Iodine vs Chlorhexidine
Immediate Effect
Alcohol>Chlorhex>Iodine
Activity reduced by organic matter
Alcohol>Iodine>Chlorhex
Residual Effect
Chlorhex>Iodine>Alcohol
NONE are effective against spores
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Disinfectant
Dissolve lipids in cell wall/membrane
Good for gram pos, some gram neg
Fungicidal, virucidal*, NOT spore
Inactivated by organic matter and soap*
NON-toxic
Chlorines
Disinfectant
BacT, virus, fungus
Inactivated by organic material, high pH, low or high temp
Cytotoxic
Dakin's solution (dilute for use on tissues)
Aldehydes (Cidex)
Disinfectant (previously a sterilant)
Protein and nucleic acid alkylation
BacT, fungus, spore, virus
NOT affected by organic matter
Activity higher at lower pH, but less stable
Toxic
Sterilization
Complete destruction of all microorganisms; applies to NONliving objects
Disinfection
The destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms on NONliving objects
Antisepsis
The destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms on LIVING objects
Cleansing
The removal of visible debris or contamination from surfaces
Bacteristatic
An agent that inhibits or arrests the growth of bacteria
Bactericidal
An agent that kills bacteria
Single wrap muslin - 2-7 days
Double wrap muslin - 3-7 weeks
Single crepe paper - 3-8 weeks
Double crepe paper - 8 weeks - 6 months
Pouches - 1 year
Autoclave Storage Times
Antiseptic
An agent lethal to vegetative organisms but suitable for use in LIVING tissue
The agent may be ________ at low concentrations and disinfectant at high concentrations