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Pres can grant pardon to a group of people


15 Cabinets today, must be nominated by Pres and appointed by the Senate to become head of a department, all heads are named Secretary except for the Justice Department which is called Attorney General

Executive Agreement

deals with foreign policy, not approved by Senate

Executive Order

Pres directive that defines new policies or carries out existing laws, Supreme Court can declare it unconstitutional, requires $ and needs Congressional Approval

Full Pardon

one person, total legal forgiveness granted by Pres


Pres grants legal forgiveness before sentence is served

Electoral College


Senatorial Courtesy

Pres will check w/ Senators of their party or of his home state

Cottail Effect

ability of politician in office to get or not get votes for another politician

Commuted Sentence

Pres cuts off at time served, doesn't clean record

Federal Register

document issued daily, containing all Executive Orders

Summit Conference

meeting of all world leaders to discuss world issues, Pres goes to as Chief Diplomat

Coup D'Etat

violent overthrow of government, Pres has to decide whether to grant diplomatic recognition to overthrown country

War Powers Act

passed over Nixon's veto in 1973, Pres w/in 48 hours must tell Congress what he is doing and why, Congress can stop him by signing a Resolution, if told to get out, Pres has 30 days to do so

State of the Union

every year in January, Pres gives this speech to the House and Senate, telling where is the US is at, where it ought to be and how to get there

12th Amendment

provides procedure for electing Pres and VP

22nd Amendment

1951, Pres can serve 2 terms, up yo 10 years

25th Amendment

1967, Pres Disability and Pres Succession


Pres can veto anything passed by the House or Senate, but a Pres Veto can be overridden with 2/3 vote of both Houses

Line Item Veto

ability to reject only parts of a bill and allow the rest, most state governors have this, but the Pres does not

Pres Disability

VP can take over when notified w/ letter by Pres that he can no longer carry out his duties, If Pres id unwilling/unable to write letter, VP can take over w/ approval of majority of cabinet (8), which can be challenged by Pres - Pres stays Pres and Congress has 21 days to decide Pres or VP (if no decision, Pres remains), 2/3 vote of House and Senate needed to keep VP

Pres Succession

if VP is empty, Pres nominates who he wants, which has to be approved by majority of the House and Senate

Salary of Pres

$400,000 a year

Chief of State

1. stands as symbol for country: for people and ideas
2. Ceremonial Duties

Chief Diplomat

1. Establishes foreign policy
2. Writes treaties
3. Grants recognition to new governments

Chief Legislator

1. Proposes legislation

Chief Jurist

1. Enforces court decisions
2. Exercises right of pardon
3. Appoints federal judges

Chief Politician

1. Leads party

Commander In Chief

1. Maintains civilian control of armed forces

Chief Executive

1. Administers government programs

3 Duties of Head of Cabinet

1. Run department
2. Advise Pres on matters concerning their department
3. Represent department in any dealings w/ Congress


not appointed by Pres, but have jobs to advise him

Patronage Power

Pres can fill jobs, some require Senate approval
can fire anyone he appoints except fed judges and heads or regulatory agencies

Power of Pardon - 4 aspects

1. stated in Constitution
2. only applies to federal law
3. cannot be challenged
4. applies to anything except impeachment

Salary of VP

$202,000 per year

Job of VP

usually selected for balancing the ticket, only duty is to preside over Senate and in case of a tie, VP acts as a tiebreaker, 1949 law passed by Congress made VP permanent member of National Security Council

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