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T/F: Human errors, ignorance, and omissions cause more than half of all security breaches sustained by networks.


T/F: Network security is more often compromised "from the inside" than from external sources.


T/F: A security policy should state exactly which hardware, software, architecture, or protocols will be used to ensure security.


T/F: Encryption is the last means of defense against data theft.


T/F: By default, the 802.11 standard offers substantial security.


____ is a social engineering practice in which a person attempts to glean access or authentication information by posing as someone who needs that information.

man in the middle

In a ____ attack, a person redirects or captures secure transmissions as they occur.

port scanner

____ software searches a node for open ports.

transmission and hardware

A router that is not configured to drop packets that match certain suspicious characteristics is an example of a risk associated with ____.

protocols and software

An NOS that contains a "back door" is an example of a risk associated with ____.


A ____ attack occurs when an Internet chat user sends commands to a victim's machine that cause the screen to fill with garbage characters and requires the victim to terminate their chat sessions.

denial of service

A ____ attack occurs when a system becomes unable to function because it has been deluged with data transmissions or otherwise disrupted.


A ____ main function is to examine packets and determine where to direct them based on their Network layer addressing information.

packet filtering

A ____ firewall is a router (or a computer installed with software that enables it to act as a router) that examines the header of every packet of data it receives to determine whether that type of packet is authorized to continue to its destination.


A ____ attack occurs when a hacker uses programs that try a combination of a user ID and every word in a dictionary to gain access to the network.

brute force

A ____ attack occurs when a hacker tries numerous possible character combinations to find the key that will decrypt encrypted data.

key pair

The combination of a public key and a private key is known as a ____.

digital certificate

A(n) ____ is a password-protected and encrypted file that holds an individual's identification information, including a public key.


The use of certificate authorities to associate public keys with certain users is known as ____.


____ is a public key encryption system that can verify the authenticity of an e-mail sender and encrypt e-mail data in transmission.


____ is a method of encrypting TCP/IP transmissions.

DNS spoofing

In ____ , a hacker forges name server records to falsify his host's identity.


A VPN ____ authenticates VPN clients and establishes tunnels for VPN connections.


____ protocols are the rules that computers follow to accomplish authentication.

authentication, authorization, and accounting

RADIUS and TACACS belong to a category of protocols known as AAA (____).

mutual authentication

In ____, both computers verify the credentials of the other.

security audit

A(n) ____________________ is a thorough examination of each aspect of the network to determine how it might be compromised.

security policy

A(n) ____________________ identifies an organization's security risks, levels of authority, designated security coordinator and team members, responsibilities for each team member, and responsibilities for each employee.


In general, information is ____________________ if it could be used by other parties to impair an organization's functioning, decrease customers' confidence, cause a financial loss, damage an organization's status, or give a significant advantage to a competitor.

proxy service

A(n) ____________________ is a software application on a network host that acts as an intermediary between the external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing traffic.


____________________ is the use of an algorithm to scramble data into a format that can be read only by reversing the algorithm.

public key encryption

Data is encrypted using two keys.

content filtering

A firewall that can block designated types of traffic based on application data contained within packets.

proxy service

A software application on a network host that acts as an intermediary between the external and internal networks, screening all incoming and outgoing traffic.


A firewall that protects only the computer on which it is installed.


Software that can react to suspicious activity.


A firewall that can view a data stream.

proxy server

The host that runs the proxy service.

private key encryption

Data is encrypted using a single key.


Software that can only detect and log suspicious activity.

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