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Embargo Act

The American laws restricting American ships from taking part in foreign trade from 1807 to 1812. This hurt American businesses who depended on exports. Originally designed to protect American interest and stay out of war, when it failed and the the U.S. resumed trade, it helped caused the War of 1812 between United States and Britain

Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

Subsequent of the Embargo Act, one of the origins of the War of 1812 and it lifted all embargoes on American ships (expect for those to Britain or France). It was intended to damage the economy of the United Kingdom and France, however it was ineffective and contributed to the War of 1812 and caused damage to the economy of the United States

Macon's Bill Number 2

A law intended to motivate Britain and France to stop taking American vessels (during the Napoleonic Wars) by lifting all embargoes with Britain or France. Napoleon took advantage of this bill to further a form of economic warfare to destroy Britain's economy (Continental Plan)

The Star-Spangled Banner

The national anthem of the United States of America, written by Francis Scott Key after he witnessed the attack of Fort McHeny by the British Royal Navy during the War of 1812.

Treaty of Ghent

A peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the U.S and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It did not change political control of any territory but reestablished the status quo antebellum and mended relations between Britain and the U.S.

Pickney Treaty

Aka Treaty of San Lorenzo/Treaty of Madrid which established friendships between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish Colonies. It ended the first phase of the West Florida controversy (a dispute between the two nations over the boundaries of Spain in Florida and was critical for the emergences of American expansion (Manifest Destiny).

Twelfth Amendment

It came in response to the Election of 1800 and established a way of electing both a president and a vice-president (as apposed to the way before where the person with the most votes became president and the second most votes became his vice-president) This reduced conflict in the executive branch between both president and vice-president since they had not volleyed for the same job.

Judiciary Act of 1801

It divided the judges of the Supreme Court and the circuit courts. It was used as an effort to resolve the issue of the judges riding the circuit in the Judicial Branch which emerged in the 19th century. They were put in at the last minute by President Adams to fill the seats of the Supreme Court with Federalist before the first Democrat-Republican president came into office (Thomas Jefferson).

Midnight Judges

TheJudiciary Act of 1801. The ________________ were the judges appointed after the passage of this act at midnight the night before Thomas Jefferson's became President.

Writ of Mandamus

An order from a high court to a lower court or other authority to complete a task.

Judicial Review

A court can reevaluate executive and legislative decisions and approve or disapprove of them. This is an example of checks and balances and was established by the landmark Supreme Court Case Marbury v. Madison.


To challenge the credibility of a person; to accuse them of crime.


A supporter of a group, person, or cause. It can also be used to describe someone's decision making as being unfairly influenced by their membership in a political party or group.


The withdraw from an association or alliance. The south ________ from the north during the Civil War.

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