Mrs. Gard science exam review sheet 2nd quarter(this does not include charts)
Terms in this set (62)
What are the types of Human blood?
A,B,AB, and O
What is the definition of genetics?
the study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring through reproductive cells
Who is Gregor Mendel?
1. He tested thousands of plants
2. He is the father of genetics
4. studied pea plants, flowers, color, and shape
5. An Austrian monk: he performed experiments that helped answer questions about how traits are inherited
What is a gene?
A section on a chromosome that has genetic information for one trait
What does homozygous mean?
when two alleles of a gene are the same
what does heterozygous mean?
when two alleles of a gene are different
what is a Punnett square?
a model that is used to predict possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring. It also shows all the ways that alleles combine
What does a dominant factor do?
a genetic factor that blocks another genetic factor
Describe a recessive factor
A genetic factor that is blocked by another gentic factor
What is self-pollination?
occurs when pollen from one plant lands on the pistil of a flower on the same plant
What is a true-breeding plant?
a plant that always produces offspring with traits that match the parent when it self pollinates
What is a chromosome?
thread-like structures that are contained in a nucleus. they contain protein,and DNA
how many chromosomes are supposed to be in a human?
What is a hybrid?
A hybrid has different forms of the same trait from the true-breeding parent
What is an allele?
The different form of a gene
How many alleles are needed for each trait?
What is a Phenotype?
how a trait appears or is expressed
What is a genotype?
The two alleles that control the phenotype of a trait
Describe Cross pollination
occurs when pollen from on plant reaches the pistil of a flower on a different plant
What is Polygenic inheritance?
occurs when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait
unicellular organisms that do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles. They are found in all continents. There are about 5,000 species
How do bacteria enter the body?
through food, the air you breath, and through an open cut
What is a capsule?
a thick covering that protects bacteria from drying out. It also prevents white blood cells from surrounding and anti-biotics from entering
What does pilli do?
helps bacteria stick to surfaces
What is flagellum?
long whip-like structures that are used for movement
What are Plants?
multi cellular producers that create oxygen through photosynthesis
What is pasteurization?
heating food to a temperature that kills most harmful bacteria
What are aerobic bacteria?
these bacteria needs oxygen
what are anaerobic bacteria?
these bacteria can survive without oxygen
Explain Harmful bacteria
(pathogens) can be killed by heat ; most aren't harmful
What are antibiotics?
medicines that stop growth and reproduction of bacteria
What are endospores?
these form when a bacterium builds a thick inner wall around its chromosome and part of the cytoplasm
What is bio-remediation?
uses organisms such as bacteria to clean up the environment; breaks down waste, sewage, pollution, etc
What is fission?
a cell division that forms two genetically identical cells
What are archaea?
unicellular prokaryotes that can live in places where other organisms can't
What are viruses?
a strand of DNA or RNA surrounded by a layer of protein that can infect and replicate in a host cell.
What are the 4 shapes of a virus?
crystal, cylinder, sphere, and bacteriophage
What happens when the virus enters a host cell?
It becomes active or latent
What happens if the virus becomes active?
If the virus becomes active its genetic material takes over the host cell and directs it to make more viruses. New viruses are released as the host cell bursts and is destroyed, then the viruses find another cell to infect
What happens if the virus becomes latent?
the viruses genetic material combines with the host cells genetic material. The host cell continues to function and reproduce normally, making copies of the viruses genetic material as well as its own. Then the virus's genetic material removes itself and becomes active
What does the replication of viruses do?
injects DNA and destroys the host cell
how are viruses beneficial?
Are viruses alive?
No, they don't possess all the characteristics of living organisms
Do viruses stay the same?
no, they are constantly changing
What is a vaccine?
a mixture containing material from one or more deactivated pathogens
What is xylem?
a type of vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the stem and the leaves
What is a producer?
organisms that use and outside energy source such as the sun to make their own food
What is a consumer?
an organism that takes stuff in; needs another organism to survive
What is a cuticle?
a waxy protective layer on plant's leaves, stems, and flowers
What does a cell wall maintain?
maintains the shape of the cell; only found in plant cells
Describe the word Vascular
90% of all plants, seedless, angiosperms
tube-like structures that transport water and nutrients
Describe the word nonvascular
lacking tube-like structures; mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
What are Rhizoids
Structures that anchor a non-vascular seedless plant to a surface
What are stems?
The part that connects the roots to the leaves
What are leaves?
They are the major site of photosynthesis
What is photosynthesis?
The exchange of carbon oxygen and H2O
What is a gymnosperm?
a con-bearing seedless plant; woody stem, used for building material, paper, and medicine
What is an angiosperm?
flowering seedless plant; used for food, clothing, and medicine
What is a conifer?
they grow on all the world's continents except Antarctica
What are annual plants?
they grow, flower, and produce in one growing season
What are Perennial plants?
they can live for more than 2 growing seasons
What is a seed?
it contains a tiny plant, an embryo, and nutrition
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