6 terms

Child and Adolescent Development Test

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Gershoff
-The studies included in the meta-analyses discussed below explicitly targeted parental corporal punishment, rather than parental physical abuse as potential predictors of child behaviors and experiences.
-Strong association between corporal punishment and all eleven child behaviors and experiences
-Largest effect sizes (strongest associations) were immediate compliance by the child and physical abuse of the child by the parent.
-Parents vary in how frequently they use it, how forcefully they administer it, how emotionally aroused they are when they do it, and whether they combine it with other techniques.
Jaffee et Al
-Reciprocal Cycle of Corporal Punishment
-Punitive parenting practices on child
-Child behavior on parenting practices
-Reciprocal process of mutual influence
Past Research:
-Identify what is it children do to evoke punitive responses for adults.
-Link genetic influences on child's behavior to genetic influences on adults control strategies.
-Explored limitations of children's influences on parental behavior toward the child.
Design:
-15,906 twin pairs born between 1994-1995.
-Longitudinal
-Gender is evenly distributed within zygosity
-High-risk families
-Self-report
-polymorphuous genes= Genes that can change.
-three types of population variations
-A = Similarity of MZ twins is greater than the similarity of DZ twins
o Additive Genetic Variance
-C = When MZ are not at least twice as similar as DZ
o Shared Environment
-E = MZ twins are not entirely identical
o Unique Environment
• Experience of corporal punishment was influenced primarily by genetic and shared environmental factors
• Genetic factors influence the former but not the latter.
Results
-74% of the covariation between corporal punishment and maltreatment was accounted for by shared environmental factors.
Maccoby
-Social vs. cognitive perspectives
Earlier Studies:
-Mostly focused on societal interactions
-Bad distinguishing between sex and gender
-Themes in fantasies, stories invented, and scenarios enacted, differ between females and males.
-Interaction / playtime differ between females and males.
-Friendship intimacy differ between females and males.
-The sex difference in the gender of preferred playmates is large in absolute magnitude, compared to sex differences found when children are observed or tested in nonsocial situations.
Lytton and Romney
-The existence and importance of such shaping behavior are in accord with social-learning theory, which explains the acquisition of sex differences in behavior and attitudes by the same mechanisms that apply to all kinds of behavior, reinforcement and modeling.
-Block argued that Maccoby and Jaclin had underestimated the extent to which parents do apply differential-socialization practices to the two sexes, and she attributed these in her opinion, misconceived conclusions to various shortcomings of the Maccoby and Jaclin review.
-No quantitative review of studies of sex differentiated socialization has, however, to our knowledge appeared and this is the gap our study attempts to fill.
-Differential treatment will win general increase with age.
-From the studies in other western countries, there appears one rather incongruous significant sex difference, suggesting that parents as a whole encourage achievement there in girls than in boys.
Schmader
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Nguyen and Ryan
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