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flower structure in which the pollen grains are produced


regulatory substance produced in the tip of a growing plat that stimulates cell elongation and the growth of new roots


tissues that are found outside the vascular cambium, including the cork cambium, phloem, and cork


thin, flattened part of a plant leaf

Capillary action-

tendency of water to rise in a thin tube


innermost part of a flower that produces and shelters the female gametophyte

Cork cambium-

meristematic tissue that produces the outer covering of stems during secondary growth of a plant


Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss.


a plant hormone produced in growing roots and in developing fruit and seeds, stimulates cell division


a plant hormone the stimulates fruit to ripen


resumption of growth of the plant embryo following dormancy


plant hormone that stimulates growth and may cause dramatic size increase

Guard cell-

specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata


in a woody stem, the older xylem near the center of the stem that no longer conducts water


structure in seed cones that in which the female gametophytes develop

Palisade mesophyll-

layer of cells under the upper epidermis of a leaf


thin stalk that connects the blade of a leaf to a stem


single carpel or several fused carpels; contains the ovary, style and stigma; the female part

Pollen grain-

structure in a plant that contains the entire male gametophyte in seed plants

Pollen tube-

structure in a plant that contains two haploid sperm nuclei


transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to the female reproductive structure

Primary growth-

pattern of growth that takes place at the tips and shoots of plants


in a woody stem the layer of secondary phloem that surrounds the heartwood; usually sctive in fluid transport

Secondary growth-

type of growth in dicots in which the stems increase in thickness

Seed coat-

though covering that surrounds and protects the plant embryo and keeps the contents of the seed from drying out

Spongy mesophhyll-

layer of loose tissue found beneath the palisade mesophyll in a leaf


in prokaryotes, protists, and fungi, any of a variety of thick-walled life cycle stages capable of surviving unfavorable conditions


male part of a flower; contains the anther and filament


sticky part at the top of the style; specialized to capture pollen


small opening in the epidermis of a plant that allows CO2, H2O, and O2 to diffuse in and out of the leaf(allows gas exchange)


loss of water from a plant through its leaves

Transpiration pull-

when water evaporates from the leaves of a plant, water is pulled up to replace what was lost.


movement of a plant toward or away from stimuli

Vascular cambium-

mersitem that produces vascular tissues and increases that thickness of stems


in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves; in animals, a blood vessel that returns blood to the heart

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