COMPLICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PHLEBOTOMY

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The most common phlebotomy complication
Hematoma (blood accumulated around the tissue)
Causes of hematoma
Not applying enough pressure after needle withdrawal
Nedle gone through the vein
Phlebitis
Vein inflammation due to repeated venipuncture
Hemoconcentration
Increase in proportion of formed elements to plasma caused by a torniquet being left too long
Petechiae
Tiny red spot from capillaries rupture( tourniquet left too long)
Thrombus
This is a blood clot due to insufficient pressure applied after needle withdrawal
Thrombophlebitis
Vein inflammation with blood clot formation
Septicemia
Systemic infection due to the presence of pathogenic
Trauma
Injury to underlying tissues
Edema
Fluid accumulation in the tissue
Fistula
Permanent surgical connection between the artery and vein (dialysis procedures)
Quality assurance QA program
Provides guidelines, protocols and continuing education for employees in a facility.
Failure to obtain blood(common causes)
-Vacuum lost
-Manufacturing defect
-Expired tube
-Fine crack in tube
-Improperly positioned needle
Phases of hemostasis
1.Vascular phase
2.Platelet phase
3.Coagulation phase
4.Fibrinolysis
Vascular phase
First phase of hemostasis , blood vessel constrict, due to injury slowing down the blood flow
Platelet phase
Second phase of hemostasis, platelet adhere to the site injured.
Coagulation phase
Third phase of hemostasis, temporary platelet plug to a stable
fibrin clot.
Fibrinolysis
Fourth phase of hemostasis, the removal of the clot take place, allowing the blood to flow normally.
Hemoconcentration: An increased concentration of larger molecules and formed elements in the blood may be due to several factors:
1.Prolonged tourniquet application (no more than 1 minute)
2.Massaging, squeezing, or probing a site
3.Long-term IV therapy


Sclerosed or occluded veins
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