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Thurgood Marshall

the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education

Brown vs. Board of Education

1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Little Rock Crisis

Gov. Orval E. Faubus defied desegregation laws in public school by ordering the Arkansas national guard to block the entry of black students; Eisenhower sent in national troops to protect them but Little Rock closed schools rather than desegregating them

Rosa Parks

refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in montgomery, AL; launched the bus boycott

Martin Luther King, Jr

a minister who was committed to nonviolent protest (inspired by Gandhi); leader of southern christian leadership conference and Montgomery bus boycott; gave I Have a Dream speech; shot in Memphis TN

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

led my MLK jr; an organization to plan/coordinate civil rights activities

Montgomery Bus Boycott

In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, MLK jr led a boycott of city busses; after 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.

Civil Rights Act of 1957

created the united states commission on civil rights to investigate systematic discrimination in areas such as voting

sit-in movement

a nonviolent approach to protest in the south in which African American citizens would "sit in" at establishments where they were denied service to make a statement

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